'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure

Journal article


Dawkins, LE, Cox, SA, Goniewicz, M, McRobbie, H, Kimber, CF, Doig, M and Kosmider, L (2018). 'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure. Addiction.
AuthorsDawkins, LE, Cox, SA, Goniewicz, M, McRobbie, H, Kimber, CF, Doig, M and Kosmider, L
Abstract

Aims: To compare the effects of i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, ii) fixed versus adjustable power and iii) the interaction between the two on: a) vaping behaviour, b) subjective effects, c) nicotine intake, and d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. Design: Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: i) low nicotine (6 mg/mL)/fixed power; ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; iii) high nicotine (18 mg/mL)/fixed power; iv) high nicotine/adjustable power. Setting: London and the South East, England. Participants: Twenty experienced e-cigarette users (recruited between September 2016 and February 2017) vaped ad libitum using an eVic Supreme™ with a ‘Nautilus Aspire’ tank over four weeks (one week per condition). Measurements: Puffing patterns (daily puff number [PN], puff duration [PD], inter-puff interval [IPI]), mL of e-liquid consumed, changes to power (where permitted), and subjective effects (urge to vape, nicotine withdrawal symptoms) were measured in each condition. Nicotine intake was measured via salivary cotinine. 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of the toxicant acrolein, and formate, a metabolite of the carcinogen formaldehyde, were measured in urine. Findings: There was a significant nicotine concentration x power interaction for PD (p<0.01). PD was longer with low nicotine/fixed power compared with i) high nicotine/fixed power (p< 0.001 and ii) low nicotine/adjustable power (p< 0.01). PN and liquid consumed were higher in the low versus high nicotine condition (main effect of nicotine, p<0.05). Urge to vape and withdrawal symptoms were lower, and nicotine intake was higher, in the high nicotine condition (main effects of nicotine: p<0.01). Whilst acrolein levels did not differ, there was a significant nicotine x power interaction for formaldehyde (p<0.05). Conclusions: Use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid was may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g., higher number and duration of puffs) and increases in negative affect, urge to vape, and formaldehyde exposure.

KeywordsE-cigarette; puffing patterns; compensatory behaviour; subjective effects; nicotine; acrolein; formaldehyde; 11 Medical And Health Sciences; 17 Psychology And Cognitive Sciences; Substance Abuse
Year2018
JournalAddiction
PublisherWiley
ISSN0965-2140
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1111/add.14271
Publication dates
Print07 Jun 2018
Publication process dates
Deposited19 May 2018
Accepted15 May 2018
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY 4.0
Publisher's version
License
CC BY 4.0
Supplemental file
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CC BY 4.0
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https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/86q9z

Accepted author manuscript

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