An exploration into “do-it-yourself” (DIY) e-liquid mixing: Users' motivations, practices and product laboratory analysis

Journal article


Cox, S, Dawkins, L, Leigh, N, Choo, E, Vanderbush, T and Goniewicz, M (2018). An exploration into “do-it-yourself” (DIY) e-liquid mixing: Users' motivations, practices and product laboratory analysis. Addictive Behaviors Reports.
AuthorsCox, S, Dawkins, L, Leigh, N, Choo, E, Vanderbush, T and Goniewicz, M
Abstract

Background: E-liquids are commercially available and manufactured, however some users of e-cigarettes prefer to prepare them at home (Do-it-Yourself; DIY) using individual ingredients. To date there is a paucity of research on how and why users make their own e-liquids.
Methods: Forty-one European and US based exclusive users of e-cigarettes (ex-smokers) were individually in- terviewed. Structured interviews focused on motivations for home-mixing, practices, buying habits and broader themes around reasons for long-term vaping. We also measured nicotine and solvent concentrations and ana- lysed 33 DIY e-liquids collected from 16 participants for nicotine, solvents, flavourings, and potentially harmful chemicals.
Results: There were four main reasons for DIY: 1) economical (financial savings), 2) self-control over manu- facturing process, 3) novelty, fun and 4) higher nicotine concentrations. Twelve out of 16 participants achieved nicotine concentration within 20% of their intended limit. Samples from five participants were above the EU Tobacco Products Directive's (TPD) 20 mg/ml nicotine concentration upper limit. Most samples contained more vegetable glycerine (VG) than propylene glycol (PG) and the most commonly used flavourings were dessert, e.g., vanilla and caramel. Chemical analysis also revealed presence of several potentially harmful chemicals and respiratory irritants, including cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and acetoin.
Conclusion: DIY may offer users of e-cigarettes a long-term affordable practical method of vaping. Recommended safety advice needs to reflect actual and fast moving user behaviour.

Year2018
JournalAddictive Behaviors Reports
PublisherElsevier
ISSN2352-8532
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.abrep.2018.100151
Publication dates
Print07 Dec 2018
Publication process dates
Deposited13 Dec 2018
Accepted07 Dec 2018
Publisher's version
License
CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
Page range100151
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/86861

  • 7
    total views
  • 24
    total downloads
  • 5
    views this month
  • 2
    downloads this month

Related outputs

Effects of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy on short-term smoking abstinence when delivered at a community pharmacy
Cox, S, Dawkins, L, Dosh, J and Cameron, J (2019). Effects of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy on short-term smoking abstinence when delivered at a community pharmacy. Addictive Behaviors Reports. 10.
A survey of the effect of viewing an on-line e-cigarette advertisement on attitudes towards cigarette and e-cigarette use in adults located in the UK and USA: a cross-sectional study.
Booth, P, Albery, I, Frings, D and Cox, S (2019). A survey of the effect of viewing an on-line e-cigarette advertisement on attitudes towards cigarette and e-cigarette use in adults located in the UK and USA: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open.
A randomized trial of E-cigarettes versus nicotine-replacement therapy
Hajek, P, Phillips-Waller, A, Przulj, D, Pesola, F, Smith, KM, Bisal, N, Li, J, Parrott, S, Sasieni, P, Dawkins, L, Ross, L, Goniewicz, M, Wu, Q and McRobbie, HJ (2019). A randomized trial of E-cigarettes versus nicotine-replacement therapy. New England Journal of Medicine. 380 (7), pp. 629-637.
A cross sectional survey of smoking characteristics and quitting behaviour from a sample of homeless adults in Great Britain
Cox, S, Dawkins, L, Ford, A, Bauld, L, Balaban, S and Tyler, A (2019). A cross sectional survey of smoking characteristics and quitting behaviour from a sample of homeless adults in Great Britain. Addictive Behaviors. 95 (2019), pp. 35-40.
The effect of alcohol dependence on automatic visuo-spatial perspective taking
Cox, S, Chandler, C, Simpson, A and Riggs, K (2016). The effect of alcohol dependence on automatic visuo-spatial perspective taking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 166, pp. 21-25.
What is the value of peer involvement in advancing tobacco harm reduction?
Cox, S, Notley, C, Ross, L and Jakes, S (2019). What is the value of peer involvement in advancing tobacco harm reduction? Harm Reduction Journal. 16 (2).
Cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy in stop smoking services in England (TEC study): a randomised controlled trial
Li, J., Hajek, P., Pesola, F., Wu, Q., Phillips-Waller, A., Przuli, D., Myers Smith, K., Bisal, N., Sasieni, P., Dawkins, L., Ross, L., Goniewicz, M., McRobbie, H. and Parrott, S. (2019). Cost-effectiveness of e-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy in stop smoking services in England (TEC study): a randomised controlled trial.
Communicating the Relative Health Risks of E-Cigarettes: An online experimental study exploring the Effects of a Comparative Health Message versus the EU Nicotine Addiction Warnings on Smokers’ and Non-Smokers’ Risk Perceptions and Behavioural Intentions.
Kimber, C., Frings, D., Cox, S., Albery, I. and Dawkins, L. (2019). Communicating the Relative Health Risks of E-Cigarettes: An online experimental study exploring the Effects of a Comparative Health Message versus the EU Nicotine Addiction Warnings on Smokers’ and Non-Smokers’ Risk Perceptions and Behavioural Intentions. Addictive Behaviors.
Understanding women's feelings about safety and hazards of street drinking in London through interpretative phenomenological analysis
Tyler, A., Moss, A. and Cox, S. (2019). Understanding women's feelings about safety and hazards of street drinking in London through interpretative phenomenological analysis. Addictive Behaviors. 99, p. 106042.
Data for 'Real-world’ compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure
Dawkins, LE, Cox, S, Goniewicz, M, McRobbie, H, Kimber, CF, Doig, M and Kosmider, L (2019). Data for 'Real-world’ compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure. John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction. doi:10.18744/LSBU.002952
Correction: Global and local perspectives on tobacco harm reduction: What are the issues and where do we go from here? [Harm Reduct J., 15, (2018) (32)] DOI: 10.1186/s12954-018-0239-5
Cox, S and Dawkins, L (2018). Correction: Global and local perspectives on tobacco harm reduction: What are the issues and where do we go from here? [Harm Reduct J., 15, (2018) (32)] DOI: 10.1186/s12954-018-0239-5. Harm Reduction Journal. 15 (1), p. 37.
Response to Campbell et al., (2018) - Health risk perceptions and reasons for use of tobacco products among clients in addictions treatment
Cox, S and Notley, C (2018). Response to Campbell et al., (2018) - Health risk perceptions and reasons for use of tobacco products among clients in addictions treatment. Addictive Behaviors. 90, pp. 378-379.
The effects of the European E-cigarette health warning and comparative health messages on non-smokers' and smokers' risk perceptions and behavioural intentions: study protocol
Kimber, C, Frings, D, Cox, S, Albery, I and Dawkins, L (2018). The effects of the European E-cigarette health warning and comparative health messages on non-smokers' and smokers' risk perceptions and behavioural intentions: study protocol. BMC Public Health. 18 (1259).
Vaping as an alternative to smoking relapse following brief lapse
Notley, C, Ward, E, Dawkins, L, Holland, R and Jakes, S (2018). Vaping as an alternative to smoking relapse following brief lapse. Drug and Alcohol Review.
Messages matter: The Tobacco Products Directive nicotine addiction health warning versus an alternative relative risk message on smokers' willingness to use and purchase an electronic cigarette
Cox, S, Daniel, F, Reeda, A and Lynne, D (2018). Messages matter: The Tobacco Products Directive nicotine addiction health warning versus an alternative relative risk message on smokers' willingness to use and purchase an electronic cigarette. Addictive Behaviors Reports. 8, pp. 136-139.
Helping you helps me: Giving and receiving social support in recovery groups for problem gamblers
Hutchison, P, Cox, S and Frings, DJ (2018). Helping you helps me: Giving and receiving social support in recovery groups for problem gamblers. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice. 22 (4), pp. 187-199.
Nicotine absorption from e-cigarettes over 12 months
Soar, K, Kimber, CF, McRobbie, H and Dawkins, LE (2018). Nicotine absorption from e-cigarettes over 12 months. Addictive Behaviors. 91, pp. 102-105.
Global and local perspectives on tobacco harm reduction: what are the issues and where do we go from here?
Cox, SA and Dawkins, LE (2018). Global and local perspectives on tobacco harm reduction: what are the issues and where do we go from here? Harm Reduction Journal. 15 (32).
A pre-post pilot study of electronic cigarettes to reduce smoking in people with severe mental illness
Hickling, L, Perez-Iglesias, R, McNeil, A, Dawkins, LE, Moxham, J, Ruffell, T, Sendt, K-V and McQuire, P (2018). A pre-post pilot study of electronic cigarettes to reduce smoking in people with severe mental illness. Psychological Medicine. 49 (6), pp. 1033-1040.
Automatic visual-spatial perspective taking in alcohol-dependence: a study with happy emotional faces
Cox, SA, Maurage, P, O'Connor, R, Chandler, C and Riggs, K (2018). Automatic visual-spatial perspective taking in alcohol-dependence: a study with happy emotional faces. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 190, pp. 42-45.
The unique contribution of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction in supporting smoking relapse prevention
Notley, C, Ward, E, Dawkins, LE and Holland, R (2018). The unique contribution of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction in supporting smoking relapse prevention. Harm Reduction Journal. 15 (1).
'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure
Dawkins, LE, Cox, SA, Goniewicz, M, McRobbie, H, Kimber, CF, Doig, M and Kosmider, L (2018). 'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure. Addiction.
Aspects of alcohol use disorder affecting social cognition as assessed using the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA)
Cox, SA, Bertoux, M, Turner, JJD, Moss, AC, Locker, K and Riggs, K (2018). Aspects of alcohol use disorder affecting social cognition as assessed using the Mini Social and Emotional Assessment (mini-SEA). Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 187, pp. 165-170.
A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Vape Shop Environments in Supporting Smoking Abstinence
Ward, E, Cox, SA, Dawkins, LE, Jakes, S, Holland, R and Notley, C (2018). A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Vape Shop Environments in Supporting Smoking Abstinence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (2), p. 297.
Optics and Illusions of Street Drinking in East London: A thematic analysis
Tyler, A., Cox, S. and Moss, A. (2018). Optics and Illusions of Street Drinking in East London: A thematic analysis. SSA Annual Conference, Society for the Study of Addiction. Newcastle 07 - 08 Nov 2018
Predictors of heroin abstinence in opiate substitution therapy in heroin-only users and dual users of heroin and crack
Heidebrecht, F, MacLeod, MB and Dawkins, LE (2017). Predictors of heroin abstinence in opiate substitution therapy in heroin-only users and dual users of heroin and crack. Addictive Behaviors.
Changing Behaviour: Electronic Cigarettes
Dawkins, LE and McRobbie, H (2017). Changing Behaviour: Electronic Cigarettes. British Psychological Society.
Compensatory puffing with lower nicotine concentration e-liquids increases carbonyl exposure in e-cigarette aerosols
Dawkins, LE, Kosmider, L, Kimber, CF, Kurek, J and Corcoran, O (2017). Compensatory puffing with lower nicotine concentration e-liquids increases carbonyl exposure in e-cigarette aerosols. Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP).
Nicotine and e-cigarettes: Rethinking addiction in the context of reduced harm.
Cox, SA and Jakes, S (2017). Nicotine and e-cigarettes: Rethinking addiction in the context of reduced harm. International Journal of Drug Policy. 44, pp. 84-85.
E-cigarette puffing patterns associated with high and low nicotine e-liquid strength: effects on toxicant and carcinogen exposure (study protocol)
Dawkins, LE, Cox, SA, Kosmider, L, McRobbie, H, Goniewicz, M, Kimber, CF and Doig, M (2016). E-cigarette puffing patterns associated with high and low nicotine e-liquid strength: effects on toxicant and carcinogen exposure (study protocol). BMC Public Health. 16.
Adolescent awareness and use of electronic cigarettes: A review of emerging trends and findings
Dawkins, LE, Greenhill, R, Notley, C, Finn, M and Turner, J (2016). Adolescent awareness and use of electronic cigarettes: A review of emerging trends and findings. Journal of Adolescent Health. 59 (6), pp. 612-619.
Alcohol Gel Ingestion Among Homeless Eastern and Central Europeans in London: Assessing the Effects on Cognitive Functioning and Psychological Health
Dawkins, LE, Soar, K and Papaioannou, G (2016). Alcohol Gel Ingestion Among Homeless Eastern and Central Europeans in London: Assessing the Effects on Cognitive Functioning and Psychological Health. Substance Use and Misuse.
Self-titration by experienced e-cigarette users: blood nicotine delivery and subjective effects
Dawkins, LE, Kimber, CF, Doig, M, Feyerabend, C and Corcoran, O (2016). Self-titration by experienced e-cigarette users: blood nicotine delivery and subjective effects. Psychopharmacology. 233 (15), pp. 2933-2941.