Modelling of Heat Energy Recovery Potential form Underground Railways with Nearby Vertical Ground Heat Exchangers in an Urban Environment

Journal article


Revesz, A, Chaer, I, Thompson, J, Mavroulidou, M, Gunn, M and Graeme, M (2018). Modelling of Heat Energy Recovery Potential form Underground Railways with Nearby Vertical Ground Heat Exchangers in an Urban Environment. Applied Thermal Engineering.
AuthorsRevesz, A, Chaer, I, Thompson, J, Mavroulidou, M, Gunn, M and Graeme, M
Abstract

Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) in urban environments can take advantage of surplus ground heat energy generated by subterranean infrastructures such as underground railways (URs). This paper describes seminal work in this area and a novel 3D numerical investigation into the heat energy recovery from URs with nearby vertical ground heat exchangers (GHEs). The investigation uses the London Underground (LU) as a case study but its results are generic worldwide. The investigation included a number of studies considering different geometrical configurations of the railway tunnels and the nearby GHE array, and the impact of that variation on the GHEs heat extraction rates. The results showed that heat extraction rates of GSHPs installed near UR tunnels can be significantly improved by up to ~ 43%. This will enhance overall GSHP system efficiencies, resulting in substantial savings in both operational costs and carbon emissions. In addition, the outcomes were used to develop a relationship which allows approximating the GHEs heat extraction improvements due to the nearby tunnel(s) heat load(s). This could give guidance to engineers working in fields where thermal interactions between URs and nearby GHEs arise.

KeywordsModelling, Underground Railways, Ground Source Heat Pumps, Vertical Ground Heat Exchangers, Secondary Heat, London Underground, London, UK; 0913 Mechanical Engineering; 0915 Interdisciplinary Engineering; Energy
Year2018
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
PublisherElsevier
ISSN1359-4311
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.10.118
Publication dates
Print01 Nov 2018
Publication process dates
Deposited25 Oct 2018
Accepted25 Oct 2018
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/868yq

Accepted author manuscript

  • 3
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 2
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Related outputs

Heat from Underground Energy London (Heat FUEL)
Lagoeiro, H, Revesz, A, Davies, G, Maidment, G, Curry, D, Faulks, G and Bielicki, J (2019). Heat from Underground Energy London (Heat FUEL). CIBSE Technical Symposium. Sheffield, UK 25 - 26 Apr 2019
Cooling with heat recovery for electrical cable tunnels in cities
Davies, G, Revesz, A, Maidment, G, Davenport, A and Yazadzhiyan, B (2019). Cooling with heat recovery for electrical cable tunnels in cities. CIBSE Technical Symposium. Sheffield, UK 25 - 26 Apr 2019
Heat from Underground Energy London (Heat FUEL)
Lagoeiro, H, Curry, D, Faulks, G, Bielicki, J, Revesz, A, Davies, G and Maidment, G (2019). Heat from Underground Energy London (Heat FUEL). IIR International Congress of Refrigeration. Montreal, Canada 24 - 30 Aug 2019 doi:10.18462/iir.icr.2019.1013
Solar still efficiency enhancement by using graphene oxide/ paraffin composite
Mohammad Reza, S, Hamid Reza, G and Chaer, I (2019). Solar still efficiency enhancement by using graphene oxide/ paraffin composite. Energies. 12 (10), p. 2002.
Encouraging remanufacturing in the retail refrigeration industry
Muranko, Z, Andrews, D, Chaer, I, Newton, EJ and Proudman, P (2019). Encouraging remanufacturing in the retail refrigeration industry. Energy Procedia. 161, pp. 283-291.
Circular economy and behaviour change: Using persuasive communication to encourage pro-circular behaviours towards the purchase of remanufactured refrigeration equipment
Muranko, Z, Andrews, D, Chaer, I and Newton, EJ (2019). Circular economy and behaviour change: Using persuasive communication to encourage pro-circular behaviours towards the purchase of remanufactured refrigeration equipment. Journal of Cleaner Production. 222, pp. 499-510.
Can waste foundry sand fully replace structural concrete sand?
Mavroulidou, M (2018). Can waste foundry sand fully replace structural concrete sand? Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 21 (3), pp. 594-605.
Comparison of the technical performance of a discretely supported slab track system and an embedded slab track system in a high-speed railway
Alkhateeb, M., Ali, A., Mavroulidou, M., Gunn, M. and Wehbi, M. (2019). Comparison of the technical performance of a discretely supported slab track system and an embedded slab track system in a high-speed railway. Railway Engineering 2019. Edinburgh, Scotland 03 - 04 Jul 2019
Geotechnical properties of paper recycling waste streams
Mavroulidou, M., Hassan, S., Gray, C., Gunn, M., Youssef, A. and Garelick, J. (2019). Geotechnical properties of paper recycling waste streams. ECSMGE 2019 – XVII European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Reykjavik, Iceland 01 - 06 Sep 2019
Innovative cementing agents, used as alternatives to conventional soil stabilisers
Mavroulidou, M., Gray, C., Mbey, P. and Gunn, M. (2019). Innovative cementing agents, used as alternatives to conventional soil stabilisers. ECSMGE 2019 – XVII European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Reykjavik, Iceland 01 - 06 Sep 2019
A study of alkali-activated concrete mixes in seawater environments
Mangasini, L., Mavroulidou, M. and Gunn, M. (2019). A study of alkali-activated concrete mixes in seawater environments. 16th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. CEST2019. Rhodes, Greece 04 - 07 Sep 2019
Innovative methods of ground improvement for two problematic UK railway earthwork materials
Mavroulidou, M., Safdar, M.U., Gunn, M., Gray, C., Payne, I., Garelick, J. and Purchase, D. (2019). Innovative methods of ground improvement for two problematic UK railway earthwork materials. 16th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. CEST2019. Rhodes, Greece 04 - 07 Sep 2019
Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Africa
Levodo, J, Ford, A and Chaer, I (2015). Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural Africa. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol:9 (No:4), pp. 446-453.
Novel Trigeneration Analysis Model (TAM) for Assessing Optimal Cooling and CCHP Scenarios in Urban New Developments
Chaer, I, Opara, P and Day, T (2017). Novel Trigeneration Analysis Model (TAM) for Assessing Optimal Cooling and CCHP Scenarios in Urban New Developments. 10th International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications. Muscat, Oman 26 - 28 Feb 2017
Viability of Airborne Wind Energy in the United Kingdom
Ye, Z, Chaer, I, Lawner, H and Ross, M (2019). Viability of Airborne Wind Energy in the United Kingdom. Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications.
Investigation of the performance characteristics of an ammonia-water absorption chiller in a tri-generation system arrangement
Hadawey, A, Tassou, S, Suamir, IN, Chaer, I and Marriott, D (2009). Investigation of the performance characteristics of an ammonia-water absorption chiller in a tri-generation system arrangement. 5th Heat Powered Cycles Conference. Berlin, Germany 07 Sep - 09 Nov 2009
Combining cooling of underground railways with heat recovery and reuse
Davies, G, Boot-Handford, N, Curry, D, Dennis, W, Ajileye, A, Revesz, A and Maidment, G (2018). Combining cooling of underground railways with heat recovery and reuse. Sustainable Cities and Society. 45, pp. 543-552.
Developing a Circular Economy in the Retail Refrigeration Industry: The Influence of Financial Incentives, Quality Standards and Process Supporting Tools on the Behavioural Intentions to Purchase and Produce Remanufactured Refrigeration Equipment
Muranko, Z, Andrews, D, Chaer, I, Newton, EJ and Proudman, P (2018). Developing a Circular Economy in the Retail Refrigeration Industry: The Influence of Financial Incentives, Quality Standards and Process Supporting Tools on the Behavioural Intentions to Purchase and Produce Remanufactured Refrigeration Equipment. 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Resource Use in Food Chains (ICSEF 2018). Paphos, Cyprus 17 - 19 Oct 2018
Use of paper sludge ash as a calcium-based stabiliser for clay soils
Mavroulidou, M (2018). Use of paper sludge ash as a calcium-based stabiliser for clay soils. Waste Management and Research.
The experiences of inpatient nursing staff caring for young people with early psychosis
Thompson, J, Boden, Z, Newton, EK, Fenton, K, Hickman, G and Larkin, M (2019). The experiences of inpatient nursing staff caring for young people with early psychosis. Journal of Research in Nursing. 24 (1-2), pp. 75-85.
A study on the potential use of paper sludge ash in concrete with glass aggregate
Mavroulidou, M and Awoliyi, S (2018). A study on the potential use of paper sludge ash in concrete with glass aggregate. Waste Management and Research.
Patient-reported experience measure in sickle cell disease.
Chakravorty, S, Tallett, A, Witwicki, C, Hay, H, Mkandawire, C, Ogundipe, A, Ojeer, P, Whitaker, A, Thompson, J, Sizmur, S, Sathyamoorthy, G and Warner, JO (2018). Patient-reported experience measure in sickle cell disease. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 103, pp. 1104-1109.
Smart cities – Thermal networks for London
Chaer, I, Pope, I, Yebiyo, M and Paurine, A (2018). Smart cities – Thermal networks for London. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress. 8, pp. 10-16.
Environmental impact and energy management of sports stadia
Chilvers, S, Chaer, I and Ford, A (2015). Environmental impact and energy management of sports stadia. CIB Joint International Symposium: Going North for Sustainability. LSBU, London 23 - 25 Nov 2015 London South Bank University.
Chapter 3 - Fluid Dynamics
Chaer, I, Doetsch, C, Kitanovski, A, Hansen, T, Frei, B, Vuarnoz., D and Reghem, P (2005). Chapter 3 - Fluid Dynamics. in: Kauffeld, M, Kawaji, M and Egolf, PW (ed.) Handbook on Ice Slurries - Fundamentals and Engineering Paris International Institute of Refrigeration, Paris, 2005. pp. 55-81
Feasibility Study of Pumping Cycle Kite Power System Implication in Scotland UK
Ye, Z, Lawner, H, Chaer, I and Marcus, R (2018). Feasibility Study of Pumping Cycle Kite Power System Implication in Scotland UK. 2018 3rd International Conference on Renewable Energy and Conservation. Sydney, Australia London South Bank University.
The Challenge of Modelling Solar Shading Products and their Impact on the Built Environment
Venturi, L, Andrews, D, De Grussa, Z and Chaer, I (2018). The Challenge of Modelling Solar Shading Products and their Impact on the Built Environment. CIBSE Technical Symposium. London South Bank University, London 12 - 13 Apr 2018 London South Bank University.
Reflective Glass Effect on Energy Consumption and Food Quality in Delicatessen Cabinets
Paurine, A, Maidment, GG and Chaer, I (2018). Reflective Glass Effect on Energy Consumption and Food Quality in Delicatessen Cabinets. CIBSE Technical Symposium. London, UK. 12 - 13 Apr 2018 London South Bank University.
Viability of Airborne Wind Energy in the United Kingdom
Chaer, I, Ye, Z, Lawner, H and Ross, M (2018). Viability of Airborne Wind Energy in the United Kingdom. 11th International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications. Doha, Qatar 25 - 28 Feb 2018 London South Bank University.
Smart Cities – Thermal Networks
Chaer, I, Pope, I and Paurine, A (2018). Smart Cities – Thermal Networks. Eleven International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications. Doha, Qatar 25 - 28 Feb 2018 London South Bank University.
Study of Energy and Cost Savings of Demand Controlled Fresh Air Systems
Chaer, I and Ricchetti, A (2018). Study of Energy and Cost Savings of Demand Controlled Fresh Air Systems. CIBSE Technical Symposium. London, UK 12 - 13 Apr 2018 London South Bank University.
Modelling Of The Thermal Interactions Of Underground Railways With Nearby Vertical Ground Heat Exchangers In An Urban Environment
Revesz, A (2017). Modelling Of The Thermal Interactions Of Underground Railways With Nearby Vertical Ground Heat Exchangers In An Urban Environment. PhD Thesis London South Bank University School of Built Environment and Architecture
A study of alkali-activated concrete mixes with ground granulated blast furnace slag
Mavroulidou, M and Martynkova, R (2018). A study of alkali-activated concrete mixes with ground granulated blast furnace slag. Global NEST Journal.
The Pro-Circular Change Model (P-CCM)– Proposing A Framework Facilitating Behavioural Change Towards a Circular Economy
Muranko, Z, Andrews, D, Newton, EJ, Chaer, I and Proudman, P (2018). The Pro-Circular Change Model (P-CCM)– Proposing A Framework Facilitating Behavioural Change Towards a Circular Economy. Resources, Conservation and Recycling.
Simulation of the heat recovery use of R744 systems in a supermarket
Colombo, I, Maidment, GG, Chaer, I and Paurine, A (2016). Simulation of the heat recovery use of R744 systems in a supermarket. 12th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Natural Working Fluids Conference. Edinburgh, UK 21 - 24 Aug 2016 London South Bank University. doi:10.18462/iir.gl.2016.1180
The role of local joint flexibility (LJF) in the structural assessments of ageing offshore structures
Khan, R, Kraincanic, I, Smith, K and Gunn, M (2016). The role of local joint flexibility (LJF) in the structural assessments of ageing offshore structures. The 12th ISOPE Pacific/Asia Offshore Mechanics Symposium. Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia 04 - 07 Oct 2016 London South Bank University. pp. 518-524
Carbon dioxide refrigeration with heat recovery for supermarkets
Colombo, I, Maidment, GG, Chaer, I and Missenden, JM (2012). Carbon dioxide refrigeration with heat recovery for supermarkets. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies. 9 (1), pp. 38-44.
A Carbon Footprint Study and a Life Cycle Assessment of an identical Refrigerated Display Cabinet: comparative analysis of the respective ratios of embodied and operational impacts
Bibalou, D, Andrews, D, Chaer, I, Maidment, GG and Longhurst, M (2014). A Carbon Footprint Study and a Life Cycle Assessment of an identical Refrigerated Display Cabinet: comparative analysis of the respective ratios of embodied and operational impacts. 4th International Conference on Life Cycle Approaches. Lille, France 05 - 06 Nov 2014 London South Bank University.
Experimental study and flow visualization of Fe2O3/kerosene in glass oscillating heat pipes
Goshayeshi, HR and Chaer, I (2016). Experimental study and flow visualization of Fe2O3/kerosene in glass oscillating heat pipes. Applied Thermal Engineering. 103, pp. 1213-1218.
A study on low energy demand materials used in glasscrete to counteract alkali-silica reactions
Mavroulidou, M and Awoliyi, S (2017). A study on low energy demand materials used in glasscrete to counteract alkali-silica reactions. 15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology CEST2017. Rhodes, Greece 31 Aug - 02 Sep 2017 London South Bank University.
Alternative calcium-based chemical stabilisers for ground improvement: Paper Sludge Ash treatment of London Clay
Mavroulidou, M, Ziniatis, A and Gray, C (2017). Alternative calcium-based chemical stabilisers for ground improvement: Paper Sludge Ash treatment of London Clay. 15th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (CEST2017). Rhodes, Greece 31 Aug - 03 Sep 2017 London South Bank University.
Unwrapped food product display shelf life assessment
Hadawey, A, Tassou, SA, Chaer, I and Sundararajan, R (2017). Unwrapped food product display shelf life assessment. Energy Procedia. 123, pp. 62-69.
Incentivising pro-circular behaviours: proposing a new enhanced capital allowance scheme for remanufactured products - the case of refrigerated display cabinets in the United Kingdom
Muranko, Z, Andrews, D, Chaer, I, Newton, EJ, Proudman, P and Longhurst, M (2017). Incentivising pro-circular behaviours: proposing a new enhanced capital allowance scheme for remanufactured products - the case of refrigerated display cabinets in the United Kingdom. Energy Procedia. 123, pp. 369-374.
Pro-circular behaviours and refrigerated display cabinets: supporting resource efficiency in the retail refrigeration sector
Muranko, Z, Andrews, D, Chaer, I, Newton, EJ, Proudman, P and Longhurst, M (2017). Pro-circular behaviours and refrigerated display cabinets: supporting resource efficiency in the retail refrigeration sector. Energy Procedia. 123, pp. 70-75.
Effects of testing techniques on the SWRC of a partially saturated soil
Zhang, X, Mavroulidou, M and Gunn, MJ (2016). Effects of testing techniques on the SWRC of a partially saturated soil. 3rd European Conference on Unsaturated Soils. Online conference 12 Sep 2016 London South Bank University. doi:10.1051/e3sconf/20160910006
Performance Enhancement of Urban Ground Source Heat Pumps through Interactions with Underground Railway Tunnels
Revesz, A, Chaer, I, Thompson, J, Mavroulidou, M, Gunn, M and Maidment, GG (2018). Performance Enhancement of Urban Ground Source Heat Pumps through Interactions with Underground Railway Tunnels. Ashrae Winter Conference. Chicago 22 - 24 Jan 2018 London South Bank University.
Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures
Davies, G, Boot-Handford, N, Grice, J, Dennis, W, Ajileye, A, Revesz, A and Maidment, GG (2018). Heat Recovery Potential from Urban Underground Infrastructures. ASHRAE Winter Conference. Chicago 20 - 24 Jan 2018 London South Bank University.
UK Centre for Efficient and Renewable Energy in Buildings (CEREB)- Lessons Learned After 5 Years of Running
Yebiyo, M, Chaer, I, Shatha, H, Ye, Z and Dunn, A (2016). UK Centre for Efficient and Renewable Energy in Buildings (CEREB)- Lessons Learned After 5 Years of Running. 9th International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications. Abu Dhabi, UAE 24 - 26 Mar 2016 London South Bank University.
Alternative Heat Transfer Fluid in Heating Systems-Energy Results from a Real Case Study
Yebiyo, M, Chaer, I, Shatha, H, Ye, Z, Peter, S and Kadir, D (2016). Alternative Heat Transfer Fluid in Heating Systems-Energy Results from a Real Case Study. 9th International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications. Abu Dhabi, UAE 24 - 26 Mar 2016 London South Bank University.
The experiential impact of hospitalisation: Parent's accounts of caring for young people with early psychosis
Hickman, G, Newton, EJ, Fenton, K, Thompson, J, Boden, Z and Larkin, M (2015). The experiential impact of hospitalisation: Parent's accounts of caring for young people with early psychosis. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 21 (1), pp. 145-155.
Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concrete with Water Cooled Copper Slag Aggregate
Mavroulidou, M (2017). Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concrete with Water Cooled Copper Slag Aggregate. Waste and Biomass Valorization.
Carbon Reduction and Energy Optimization Strategy for one NHS Trust
Chaer, I and Sattar, E (2015). Carbon Reduction and Energy Optimization Strategy for one NHS Trust. Technical symposium 2017: delivery resilient high performance buildings. Loughborough University 05 - 06 Apr 2017 CIBSE. pp. ? - ? (21)
REAL Zero – Reducing refrigerant emissions & leakage - feedback from the IOR Project
Cowan, D, Gartshore, J, Christina, F, Chaer, I and Maidment, GG (2011). REAL Zero – Reducing refrigerant emissions & leakage - feedback from the IOR Project. Proceedings of the Institute of Refrigeration.
Using Life Cycle Assessment to Illustrate the Benefits of Blinds as Passive and Sustainable Energy Saving Products in the Domestic Environment in the UK
Andrews, D, De Grussa, Z and Chaer, I (2015). Using Life Cycle Assessment to Illustrate the Benefits of Blinds as Passive and Sustainable Energy Saving Products in the Domestic Environment in the UK. Going north for sustainability. London South Bank University 25 Nov 2015 London South Bank University.
An Assessment of Differing Environmental and Economic Factors and their Impact on the Development of a Circular Economy for Refrigerated Display Cabinets in the UK
Andrews, D, Muranko, Z and Chaer, I (2015). An Assessment of Differing Environmental and Economic Factors and their Impact on the Development of a Circular Economy for Refrigerated Display Cabinets in the UK. Sustainable Innovation 2015. University for the Creative Arts Epsom, Surrey, UK 09 - 10 Nov 2015 London South Bank University.
Trigeneration in food retail: An energetic, economic and environmental evaluation for a supermarket application; Applied Thermal Engineering
Sugiartha, N, Tassou, SA, Chaer, I and Marriott, D (2007). Trigeneration in food retail: An energetic, economic and environmental evaluation for a supermarket application; Applied Thermal Engineering. Applied Thermal Engineering. 29 (13), pp. 2624-2632.
DEVELOPING CIRCULAR ECONOMY FOR THE RETAIL REFRIGERATION INDUSTRY: HOW FINANCIAL INCENTIVES COULD INFLUENCE REMANUFACTURiNG OF REFRIGERATED DISPLAY CABINETS IN THE UK
Muranko, Z, Andrews, D, Chaer, I, Newton, EJ, Proudman, P and Longhurst, M (2016). DEVELOPING CIRCULAR ECONOMY FOR THE RETAIL REFRIGERATION INDUSTRY: HOW FINANCIAL INCENTIVES COULD INFLUENCE REMANUFACTURiNG OF REFRIGERATED DISPLAY CABINETS IN THE UK. Sustainable Innovation 2016 21st International Conference ‘Circular Economy’ Innovation & Design. University for the Creative Arts Epsom, Surrey, UK 07 - 08 Nov 2016 London South Bank University.
Modelling and performance evaluation of a low-temperature ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system
Ge, YT, Tassou, SA and Chaer, I (2009). Modelling and performance evaluation of a low-temperature ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies. 4 (2), pp. 68 - 77.
Estimation of Cooling Energy Demand and Carbon Emissions from Urban Buildings using a Quasi-dynamic Model
Cowan, D, Maidment, GG and Chaer, I (2014). Estimation of Cooling Energy Demand and Carbon Emissions from Urban Buildings using a Quasi-dynamic Model. ASHRAE 2014 Winter Conference. New York city, USA 18 - 22 Jan 2014 London South Bank University.
Non-equilibrium gas-liquid transition model
Chaer, I, Librovich, BV, Nowakowski, AF and Tassou, SA (2007). Non-equilibrium gas-liquid transition model. Sixth International Congress on Industrial Applied Mathematics (ICIAM07) and GAMM Annual Meeting. Zurich Dec 2007 London South Bank University. doi:10.1002/pamm.200700233
Refrigerant emissions and leakage prevention across Europe - Results from the RealSkillsEurope project
Koronaki, IP, Cowan, D, Maidment, GG, Beerrnan, K, Schreurs, M, Kaar, K, Chaer, I, Gontarz, G, Christodoulaki, RI and Cazauran, X (2012). Refrigerant emissions and leakage prevention across Europe - Results from the RealSkillsEurope project. Energy. 45 (1), pp. 71 - 80.
Heat transfer and pressure drop of ice slurries in plate heat exchangers
Bellas, J, Chaer, I and Tassou, SA (2002). Heat transfer and pressure drop of ice slurries in plate heat exchangers. Applied Thermal Engineering. 22 (7), pp. 721 - 732.
Comparison of copper and glass oscillating heat pipes with Fe2O3 under magnetic field.
Goshayeshi, HR and Chaer, I (2015). Comparison of copper and glass oscillating heat pipes with Fe2O3 under magnetic field. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies. 11 (4), pp. 455- 459.
A study of the water retention curve of lime-treated London Clay
Zhang, X, Mavroulidou, M and Gunn, MJ (2016). A study of the water retention curve of lime-treated London Clay. Acta Geotechnica. 12 (1), pp. 23-45.
Ground source heat pumps and their interactions with underground railway tunnels in an urban environment: A review
Revesz, A, Chaer, I, Thompson, J, Mavroulidou, M, Gunn, MJ and Maidment, GG (2015). Ground source heat pumps and their interactions with underground railway tunnels in an urban environment: A review. Applied Thermal Engineering. 93, pp. 147 - 154.