A review of prospective memory impairments in developmental dyslexia: Evidence, explanations, and future directions

Journal article


Smith-Spark, JH (2017). A review of prospective memory impairments in developmental dyslexia: Evidence, explanations, and future directions. Clinical Neuropsychologist.
AuthorsSmith-Spark, JH
Abstract

Objective: The effects of developmental dyslexia are not restricted solely to the processes involved in reading and spelling. Despite this broader impact on cognition, there has been very little dyslexia-related research on prospective memory (PM; memory for delayed intentions) until very recently. This paper focuses on reviewing a recent program of research which sought to explore this memory system in adults with dyslexia. Method: The review focuses mainly on studies of adults with dyslexia in which PM was compared with that of IQ-matched adults without dyslexia across clinical measures, computerized tests, self-report questionnaire, and more naturalistic tasks. Results: Across the reviewed studies, the adults with dyslexia showed a range of impairments in both laboratory and everyday settings. Dyslexia-related PM impairments occurred predominantly when cues to remembering were time-based rather than being cued by events in the environment, when delays to act upon the intention were prolonged, and when tasks were one-off events rather than being habitual. As well as being less accurate in their PM, the participants with dyslexia were also less likely to remember PM instructions over longer delay periods. Conclusions: PM deficits in dyslexia are considered in terms of the retrospective and prospective components of PM function. Less efficient access to verbal information in long-term memory, problems with time perception, and poorer executive functions are all considered as potential explanations for less accurate PM in dyslexia. The findings from the research program are linked to broader dyslexia theory and research. Means for supporting individuals with dyslexia are considered.

Keywordsdevelopmental dyslexia; prospective memory; retrospective memory; executive functioning; time perception; Neurosciences; Psychology; Cognitive Science; Clinical Psychology
Year2017
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
PublisherLondon South Bank University
ISSN1385-4046
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2017.1369571
Publication dates
Print22 Aug 2017
Publication process dates
Deposited18 Aug 2017
Accepted14 Aug 2017
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY 4.0
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