Automated breast lesion localisation in microwave imaging employing simplified pulse coupled neural network
Dey, M., Rana, S., Loretoni, R., Duranti, M., Sani, L., Vispa, A., Raspa, G., Ghavami, M., Dudley-Mcevoy, S. and Tiberi, G. (2021). Automated breast lesion localisation in microwave imaging employing simplified pulse coupled neural network. London South Bank University. https://doi.org/10.18744/lsbu.8xz49
|Authors||Dey, M., Rana, S., Loretoni, R., Duranti, M., Sani, L., Vispa, A., Raspa, G., Ghavami, M., Dudley-Mcevoy, S. and Tiberi, G.|
MammoWave is a microwave imaging device for breast lesion detection, employing two antennas that rotate azimuthally (horizontally) around the breast. The antennas operate in the 1-9 GHz band and are set in free space, i.e., pivotally, no matching liquid is required. Microwave images, subsequently obtained through the application of the Huygens Principle, are intensity maps, representing the homogeneity of the dielectric properties of the breast tissues under test. In this paper, MammoWave has been used to realize tissue dielectric differences and localize lesions, after segmenting microwave images adaptively, by applying pulse coupled neural network (PCNN). The proposed method has been tested on microwave images of 61 breasts, verifying that the automated breast lesion localization in microwave imaging matches with the radiological localization. Subsequently, a non-parametric thresholding technique has been modelled to differentiate between breasts with no radiological finding (NF) and breasts with radiological findings (WF), i.e., with lesions that may be benign or malignant.
|Keywords||Microwave image processing; Breast lesion localisation; Neural network|
|Publisher||London South Bank University|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||https://doi.org/10.18744/lsbu.8xz49|
|Funder/Client||H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions|
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|Data collection method|
The inclusion criteria allowed female volunteers above 18 years old with intact breast skin and with a radiologist study output obtained through conventional exams (mammography and/or ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging) within the last month. All protocols and procedures were in accordance with both institutional and national ethical standards in research, and with World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and its later amendments or analogous ethical standards. Prior to the trial, all participants have been requested to read and sign both the informative sheet and informed consent form.
Once a subject agrees to participate, she is assisted by the clinical study coordinator; the subject (prone) positions her breast in the cup, which is appropriately integrated in a bed. Specifically, three cups having varying sizes are available, and the clinical study coordinator chose the one that better fits the subject’s breast. Cups are made of polylactic acid (PLA), which has proven to be biocompatible. The thickness of the cup is 1 mm; it has been shown that such thickness does not impact microwave imaging. It is worthwhile pointing out that no matching liquid is used in the apparatus, and no breast compression has to be applied during acquisition. Microwave images have been first obtained in a cylindrical grid having radius equal to 7 cm (which corresponds to the radius of the receiving antenna), a radial sampling of 1 mm and an azimuthal sampling of 3°. Next, all images have been interpolated on a 2D Cartesian grid having X and Y sampling of 1 mm. We present here the results obtained using a set of data constituted of 61 breasts.
|Data preparation and processing activities|
All data have been anonymized with only the staff who took the data aware of patients details. Specifically, information that identifies an individual patient has been removed and replaced by a 2-digit ID number code.
|Publication process dates|
|Deposited||05 Oct 2021|
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