# A joint text mining-rank size investigation of the rhetoric structures of the US Presidents’ speeches

Journal article

Ficcadenti, V, Cerqueti, R. and Ausloos, M. (2019). A joint text mining-rank size investigation of the rhetoric structures of the US Presidents’ speeches.

*Expert Systems with Applications.*123, pp. 127-142.

Authors | Ficcadenti, V, Cerqueti, R. and Ausloos, M. |
---|---|

Abstract | © 2019 Elsevier Ltd This work presents a text mining context and its use for a deep analysis of the messages delivered by politicians. Specifically, we deal with an expert systems-based exploration of the rhetoric dynamics of a large collection of US Presidents’ speeches, ranging from Washington to Trump. In particular, speeches are viewed as complex expert systems whose structures can be effectively analyzed through rank-size laws. The methodological contribution of the paper is twofold. First, we develop a text mining-based procedure for the construction of the dataset by using a web scraping routine on the Miller Center website – the repository site collecting the speeches. Second, we explore the implicit structure of the discourse data by implementing a rank-size procedure over the individual speeches, being the words of each speech ranked in terms of their frequencies. The scientific significance of the proposed combination of text-mining and rank-size approaches can be found in its flexibility and generality, which let it be reproducible to a wide set of expert systems and text mining contexts. The usefulness of the proposed method and of the speeches analysis is demonstrated by the findings themselves. Indeed, in terms of impact, it is worth noting that interesting conclusions of social, political and linguistic nature on how 45 United States Presidents, from April 30, 1789 till February 28, 2017 delivered political messages can be carried out. Indeed, the proposed analysis shows some remarkable regularities, not only inside a given speech, but also among different speeches. Moreover, under a purely methodological perspective, the presented contribution suggests possible ways of generating a linguistic decision-making algorithm. |

Year | 2019 |

Journal | Expert Systems with Applications |

Journal citation | 123, pp. 127-142 |

Publisher | Elsevier BV |

ISSN | 0957-4174 |

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) | doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2018.12.049 |

Web address (URL) | https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957417418308170?via%3Dihub |

Publication dates | |

Print | 01 Jun 2019 |

Online | 05 Jan 2019 |

Publication process dates | |

Accepted | 28 Dec 2018 |

Deposited | 19 Feb 2020 |

Accepted author manuscript | License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 File Access Level Open |

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/88zvv

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##### On the coexistence of innovators and imitators

Cerqueti, R., Tramontana, F. and Ventura, M. (2015). On the coexistence of innovators and imitators.*Technological Forecasting and Social Change.*90 (B), pp. 487-496.

##### A review of aggregation techniques for agent-based models: understanding the presence of long-term memory

Cerqueti, R. and Rotundo, G. (2015). A review of aggregation techniques for agent-based models: understanding the presence of long-term memory.*Quality & Quantity.*49 (4), pp. 1693-1717.

##### Evidence of economic regularities and disparities of Italian regions from aggregated tax income size data

Cerqueti, R. and Ausloos, M. (2015). Evidence of economic regularities and disparities of Italian regions from aggregated tax income size data.*Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.*421, pp. 187-207.

##### Corruptibility and tax evasion

Cerqueti, R. and Coppier, R. (2015). Corruptibility and tax evasion.*European Journal of Law and Economics.*39 (2), pp. 355-373.

##### Approximating multivariate Markov chains for bootstrapping through contiguous partitions

Cerqueti, R., Falbo, P., Guastaroba, G. and Pelizzari, C. (2015). Approximating multivariate Markov chains for bootstrapping through contiguous partitions.*OR Spectrum.*37 (3), pp. 803-841.

##### Socio-economical analysis of Italy: The case of hagiotoponym cities

Cerqueti, R. and Ausloos, M. (2015). Socio-economical analysis of Italy: The case of hagiotoponym cities.*The Social Science Journal.*52 (4), pp. 561-564.

##### Cross ranking of cities and regions: population versus income

Cerqueti, R. and Ausloos, M. (2015). Cross ranking of cities and regions: population versus income.*Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment.*2015 (7), pp. P07002-P07002.

##### A disutility-based drift control for exchange rates

Castellano, R, Cerqueti, R and D'Ecclesia, R. L (2014). A disutility-based drift control for exchange rates.*Optimization.*63 (2), pp. 255-269.

##### A quantitative view on policymakers’ goal, institutions and tax evasion

Bovi, M and Cerqueti, R (2014). A quantitative view on policymakers’ goal, institutions and tax evasion.*Quality & Quantity.*48 (3), pp. 1493-1510.

##### Mean–Variance portfolio selection in presence of infrequently traded stocks

Castellano, R and Cerqueti, R (2014). Mean–Variance portfolio selection in presence of infrequently traded stocks.*European Journal of Operational Research.*234 (2), pp. 442-449.

##### Exhaustion of resources: a marked temporal process framework

Cerqueti, R (2014). Exhaustion of resources: a marked temporal process framework.*Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment.*28 (4), pp. 1023-1033.

##### Symmetries of systems with spatially bounded domains

Cerqueti, R and Sarnari, F (2014). Symmetries of systems with spatially bounded domains.*Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems.*6 (1), pp. 11-25.

##### Benford’s law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions

Mir, T. A, Ausloos, M and Cerqueti, R (2014). Benford’s law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions.*The European Physical Journal B.*87 (11).

##### New results on the convergence of random matrices

Cerqueti, R and Costantini, M (2013). New results on the convergence of random matrices.*Statistics.*47 (4), pp. 663-671.

##### Roots and effects of financial misperception in a stochastic dominance framework

Castellano, R and Cerqueti, R (2013). Roots and effects of financial misperception in a stochastic dominance framework.*Quality & Quantity.*47 (6), pp. 3371-3389.

##### Extension of dependence properties to semi-copulas and applications to the mean–variance model

Cerqueti, R and Spizzichino, F (2013). Extension of dependence properties to semi-copulas and applications to the mean–variance model.*Fuzzy Sets and Systems.*220, pp. 99-108.

##### A Tabu Search heuristic procedure in Markov chain bootstrapping

Cerqueti, R, Falbo, P, Guastaroba, G and Pelizzari, C (2013). A Tabu Search heuristic procedure in Markov chain bootstrapping.*European Journal of Operational Research.*227 (2), pp. 367-384.

##### Economic interactions and social tolerance: A dynamic perspective

Cerqueti, R, Correani, L and Garofalo, G (2013). Economic interactions and social tolerance: A dynamic perspective.*Economics Letters.*120 (3), pp. 458-463.

##### Illegal finance and usurers behaviour

Barone, R, Cerqueti, R and Quaranta, A. G. (2012). Illegal finance and usurers behaviour.*European Journal of Law and Economics.*34 (2), pp. 265-277.

##### The perspective of a bank in granting credits: an optimization model

Cerqueti, R and Quaranta, A. G (2012). The perspective of a bank in granting credits: an optimization model.*Optimization Letters.*6 (5), pp. 867-882.

##### Financing policies via stochastic control: a dynamic programming approach

Cerqueti, R (2012). Financing policies via stochastic control: a dynamic programming approach.*Journal of Global Optimization.*53 (3), pp. 539-561.

##### The role of diversity in persistence aggregation

Cerqueti, R and Rotundo, G (2012). The role of diversity in persistence aggregation.*International Journal of Intelligent Systems.*27 (2), pp. 176-187.

##### Corruption, growth and ethnic fractionalization: a theoretical model

Cerqueti, R, Coppier, R and Piga, G (2012). Corruption, growth and ethnic fractionalization: a theoretical model.*Journal of Economics.*106 (2), pp. 153-181.

##### Optimal consumption/investment problem with light stocks: A mixed continuous-discrete time approach

Castellano, R and Cerqueti, R (2012). Optimal consumption/investment problem with light stocks: A mixed continuous-discrete time approach.*Applied Mathematics and Computation.*218 (12), pp. 6887-6898.

##### The optimal bid/ask spread in a Specialist System

Castellano, R and Cerqueti, R (2011). The optimal bid/ask spread in a Specialist System.*Economic Modelling.*28 (5), pp. 2247-2253.

##### Economic growth, corruption and tax evasion

Cerqueti, R and Coppier, R (2011). Economic growth, corruption and tax evasion.*Economic Modelling.*28 (1-2), pp. 489-500.

##### Testing for rational bubbles in the presence of structural breaks: Evidence from nonstationary panels

Cerqueti, R and Costantini, M (2011). Testing for rational bubbles in the presence of structural breaks: Evidence from nonstationary panels.*Journal of Banking & Finance.*35 (10), pp. 2598-2605.

##### Memory Property in Heterogeneously Populated Markets

Cerqueti, R and Rotundo, G (2010). Memory Property in Heterogeneously Populated Markets. in: Greco, S, Marques Pereira, RA, Squillante, M, Yager, RR and Kacprzyk, J (ed.) Preferences and Decisions - Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing Berlin Springer Verlag. pp. 53-69##### Light Stocks and Wealth Allocation

Cerqueti, R and Castellano, R (2010). Light Stocks and Wealth Allocation. in: Kasımbeyli, R, Dinçer, C, Özpeynirci, S and Sakalauskas, L (ed.) 24th mini euro conference on continuous optimization and information based technologies in the financial sector - MEC EUROPT 2010: selected papers Vilnius "Technika".##### Some Nonparametric Asymptotic Results for a Class of Stochastic Processes

Cerqueti, R and Costantini, M (2010). Some Nonparametric Asymptotic Results for a Class of Stochastic Processes.*Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods.*39 (14), pp. 2552-2560.

##### Options with underlying asset driven by a fractional brownian motion: crossing barriers estimates

Rotundo, G and Cerqueti, R (2010). Options with underlying asset driven by a fractional brownian motion: crossing barriers estimates.*New Mathematics and Natural Computation.*06 (01), pp. 109-118.

##### A Dynamic Stochastic Model of Asset Pricing with Heterogeneous Beliefs

Brianzoni, S, Cerqueti, R and Michetti, E (2010). A Dynamic Stochastic Model of Asset Pricing with Heterogeneous Beliefs.*Computational Economics.*35 (2), pp. 165-188.

##### A Characterization of the Dickey-Fuller Distribution With Some Extensions to the Multivariate Case

Cerqueti, R, Costantini, M and Lupi, C (2009). A Characterization of the Dickey-Fuller Distribution With Some Extensions to the Multivariate Case. in: Martinez, WL (ed.) Proceedings of the Joint Statistical Meeting (Business and Economic Statistics Section), 1-6 August 2009, Washington DC, USA American Statistical Association.##### Dynamic Programming via Measurable Selection

Cerqueti, R (2009). Dynamic Programming via Measurable Selection.*Pacific Journal of Optimization.*5 (1), pp. 169-181.

##### Tax revenues, fiscal corruption and “shame” costs

Cerqueti, R and Coppier, R (2009). Tax revenues, fiscal corruption and “shame” costs.*Economic Modelling.*26 (6), pp. 1239-1244.

##### A spatial mixed Poisson framework for combination of excess-of-loss and proportional reinsurance contracts

Cerqueti, R, Foschi, R and Spizzichino, F (2009). A spatial mixed Poisson framework for combination of excess-of-loss and proportional reinsurance contracts.*Insurance: Mathematics and Economics.*45 (1), pp. 59-64.

##### Companies' decisions for profit maximization: a structural model

Cerqueti, R and Rotundo, G. (2009). Companies' decisions for profit maximization: a structural model.*Applied Mathematical Sciences.*3 (27), pp. 1327-1340.

##### Asymptotic solutions of a generalized eigenvalue problem

Cerqueti, R. and Costantini, M. (2009). Asymptotic solutions of a generalized eigenvalue problem.*Applied Mathematical Sciences.*3 (60), pp. 2985-2999.

##### On the asymptotic behaviour of random matrices in a multivariate statistical model

Cerqueti, R and Costantini, M (2008). On the asymptotic behaviour of random matrices in a multivariate statistical model.*Statistics & Probability Letters.*78 (14), pp. 2039-2045.

##### Dynamics of financial time series in an inhomogeneous framework

Cerqueti, R and Rotundo, G (2007). Dynamics of financial time series in an inhomogeneous framework. in: Sibillo, M and Perna, C (ed.) Mathematical and statistical methods in insurance and finance Berlin Springer Verlag. pp. 67-74##### Productivity and costs for firms in presence of technology renewal processes

Cerqueti, R and Rotundo, G (2007). Productivity and costs for firms in presence of technology renewal processes.*International Transactions in Operational Research.*14 (6), pp. 521-534.

##### Microeconomic modeling of financial time series with long term memory

Cerqueti, R and Rotundo, G (2003). Microeconomic modeling of financial time series with long term memory.*2003 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Financial Engineering. Proceedings.*IEEE. doi:10.1109/cifer.2003.1196260