Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

Journal article


Kyu, HH, Abate, D, Abate, KH, Abay, SM, Abbafati, C, Abbasi, N, Abbastabar, H, Abd-Allah, F, Abdela, J, Abdelalim, A, Abdollahpour, I, Abdulkader, RS, Abebe, M, Abebe, Z, Abil, OZ, Aboyans, V, Abrham, AR, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Abu-Rmeileh, NME, Accrombessi, MMK, Acharya, D, Acharya, P, Ackerman, IN, Adamu, AA, Adebayo, OM, Adekanmbi, V, Ademi, Z, Adetokunboh, OO, Adib, MG, Adsuar, JC, Afanvi, KA, Afarideh, M, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Agesa, KM, Aggarwal, R, Aghayan, SA, Agrawal, A, Ahmadi, A, Ahmadi, M, Ahmadieh, H, Ahmed, MB, Ahmed, S, Aichour, AN, Aichour, I, Aichour, MTE, Akinyemiju, T, Akseer, N, Al-Aly, Z, Al-Eyadhy, A, Al-Mekhlafi, HM, Al-Raddadi, RM, Alahdab, F, Alam, K, Alam, T, Alashi, A, Alavian, SM, Alene, KA, Alijanzadeh, M, Alizadeh-Navaei, R, Aljunid, SM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Alonso, J, Alsharif, U, Altirkawi, K, Alvis-Guzman, N, Aminde, LN, Amini, E, Amiresmaili, M, Ammar, W, Amoako, YA, Anber, NH, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Animut, MD, Anjomshoa, M, Ansha, MG, Antonio, CAT, Anwari, P, Arabloo, J, Aremu, O, Ärnlöv, J, Arora, A, Arora, M, Artaman, A, Aryal, KK, Asayesh, H, Ataro, Z, Ausloos, M, Avila-Burgos, L, Avokpaho, EFGA, Awasthi, A, Ayala Quintanilla, BP, Ayer, R, Azzopardi, PS, Babazadeh, A, Badali, H and Balakrishnan, K (2018). Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 392 (10159), pp. 1859-1922.
AuthorsKyu, HH, Abate, D, Abate, KH, Abay, SM, Abbafati, C, Abbasi, N, Abbastabar, H, Abd-Allah, F, Abdela, J, Abdelalim, A, Abdollahpour, I, Abdulkader, RS, Abebe, M, Abebe, Z, Abil, OZ, Aboyans, V, Abrham, AR, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Abu-Rmeileh, NME, Accrombessi, MMK, Acharya, D, Acharya, P, Ackerman, IN, Adamu, AA, Adebayo, OM, Adekanmbi, V, Ademi, Z, Adetokunboh, OO, Adib, MG, Adsuar, JC, Afanvi, KA, Afarideh, M, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Agesa, KM, Aggarwal, R, Aghayan, SA, Agrawal, A, Ahmadi, A, Ahmadi, M, Ahmadieh, H, Ahmed, MB, Ahmed, S, Aichour, AN, Aichour, I, Aichour, MTE, Akinyemiju, T, Akseer, N, Al-Aly, Z, Al-Eyadhy, A, Al-Mekhlafi, HM, Al-Raddadi, RM, Alahdab, F, Alam, K, Alam, T, Alashi, A, Alavian, SM, Alene, KA, Alijanzadeh, M, Alizadeh-Navaei, R, Aljunid, SM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Alonso, J, Alsharif, U, Altirkawi, K, Alvis-Guzman, N, Aminde, LN, Amini, E, Amiresmaili, M, Ammar, W, Amoako, YA, Anber, NH, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Animut, MD, Anjomshoa, M, Ansha, MG, Antonio, CAT, Anwari, P, Arabloo, J, Aremu, O, Ärnlöv, J, Arora, A, Arora, M, Artaman, A, Aryal, KK, Asayesh, H, Ataro, Z, Ausloos, M, Avila-Burgos, L, Avokpaho, EFGA, Awasthi, A, Ayala Quintanilla, BP, Ayer, R, Azzopardi, PS, Babazadeh, A, Badali, H and Balakrishnan, K
Abstract

Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Background: How long one lives, how many years of life are spent in good and poor health, and how the population's state of health and leading causes of disability change over time all have implications for policy, planning, and provision of services. We comparatively assessed the patterns and trends of healthy life expectancy (HALE), which quantifies the number of years of life expected to be lived in good health, and the complementary measure of disability-adjusted lifeyears (DALYs), a composite measure of disease burden capturing both premature mortality and prevalence and severityof ill health, for 359 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories over the past 28 years. Methods We used data for age-speci?c mortality rates, years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature mortality, and years lived with disability (YLDs) from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to calculate HALE and DALYs from 1990 to 2017. We calculated HALE using age-specific mortality rates and YLDs per capita for each location, age, sex, and year. We calculated DALYs for 359 causes as the sum of YLLs and YLDs. We assessed how observed HALE and DALYs differed by country and sex from expected trends based on Sociodemographic Index (SDI). We also analysed HALE by decomposing years of life gained into years spent in good health and in poor health, between 1990 and 2017, and extra years lived by females compared with males. Findings Globally, from 1990 to 2017, life expectancy at birth increased by 7·4 years (95% uncertainty interval 7·1-7·8), from 65·6 years (65·3-65·8) in 1990 to 73·0 years (72·7-73·3) in 2017. The increase in years of life varied from 5·1 years (5·0-5·3) in high SDI countries to 12·0 years (11·3-12·8) in low SDI countries. Of the additional years of life expected at birth, 26·3% (20·1-33·1) were expected to be spent in poor health in high SDI countries compared with 11·7% (8·8-15·1) in low-middle SDI countries. HALE at birth increased by 6·3 years (5·9-6·7), from 57·0 years (54·6-59·1) in 1990 to 63·3 years (60·5-65·7) in 2017. The increase varied from 3·8 years (3·4-4·1) in high SDI countries to 10·5 years (9·8-11·2) in low SDI countries. Even larger variations in HALE than these were observed between countries, ranging from 1·0 year (0·4-1·7) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (62·4 years [59·9-64·7] in 1990 to 63·5 years [60·9-65·8] in 2017) to 23·7 years (21·9-25·6) in Eritrea (30·7 years [28·9-32·2] in 1990 to 54·4 years [51·5-57·1] in 2017). In most countries, the increase in HALE was smaller than the increase in overall life expectancy, indicating more years lived in poor health. In 180 of 195 countries and territories, females were expected to live longer than males in 2017, with extra years lived varying from 1·4 years (0·6-2·3) in Algeria to 11·9 years (10·9-12·9) in Ukraine. Of the extra years gained, the proportion spent in poor health varied largely across countries, with less than 20% of additional years spent in poor health in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, and Slovakia, whereas in Bahrain all the extra years were spent in poor health. In 2017, the highest estimate of HALE at birth was in Singapore for both females (75·8 years [72·4-78·7]) and males (72·6 years [69·8-75·0]) and the lowest estimates were in Central African Republic (47·0 years [43·7-50·2] for females and 42·8 years [40·1-45·6] for males). Globally, in 2017, the ?ve leading causes of DALYs were neonatal disorders, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, lower respiratory infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALY rates decreased by 41·3% (38·8-43·5) for communicable diseases and by 49·8% (47·9-51·6) for neonatal disorders. For non-communicable diseases, global DALYs increased by 40·1% (36·8-43·0), although age-standardised DALY rates decreased by 18·1% (16·0-20·2). Interpretation With increasing life expectancy in most countries, the question of whether the additional years of life gained are spent in good health or poor health has been increasingly relevant because of the potential policy implications, such as health-care provisions and extending retirement ages. In some locations, a large proportion of those additional years are spent in poor health. Large inequalities in HALE and disease burden exist across countries in different SDI quintiles and between sexes. The burden of disabling conditions has serious implications for health system planning and health-related expenditures. Despite the progress made in reducing the burden of communicable diseases and neonatal disorders in low SDI countries, the speed of this progress could be increased by scaling up proven interventions. The global trends among non-communicable diseases indicate that more effort is needed to maximise HALE, such as risk prevention and attention to upstream determinants of health.

KeywordsGBD 2017 DALYs and HALE Collaborators; Humans; Communicable Diseases; Wounds and Injuries; Life Expectancy; Prevalence; Mortality; Risk Factors; Health Status; Quality-Adjusted Life Years; Socioeconomic Factors; Aged; Disabled Persons; Female; Male; Mortality, Premature; Healthy Lifestyle; Global Burden of Disease
Year2018
JournalThe Lancet
Journal citation392 (10159), pp. 1859-1922
PublisherElsevier BV
ISSN0140-6736
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32335-3
Publication dates
Print10 Nov 2018
Publication process dates
Submitted10 Oct 2018
Deposited09 May 2020
Publisher's version
License
CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
File Access Level
Open
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Fullman, N, Yearwood, J, Abay, SM, Abbafati, C, Abd-Allah, F, Abdela, J, Abdelalim, A, Abebe, Z, Abebo, TA, Aboyans, V, Abraha, HN, Abreu, DMX, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Adane, AA, Adedoyin, RA, Adetokunboh, O, Adhikari, TB, Afarideh, M, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Agius, D, Agrawal, A, Agrawal, S, Ahmad Kiadaliri, A, Aichour, MTE, Akibu, M, Akinyemi, RO, Akinyemiju, TF, Akseer, N, Al Lami, FH, Alahdab, F, Al-Aly, Z, Alam, K, Alam, T, Alasfoor, D, Albittar, MI, Alene, KA, Al-Eyadhy, A, Ali, SD, Alijanzadeh, M, Aljunid, SM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Allen, C, Alomari, MA, Al-Raddadi, R, Alsharif, U, Altirkawi, KA, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amare, AT, Amenu, K, Ammar, W, Amoako, YA, Anber, N, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Antonio, CAT, Araújo, VEM, Aremu, O, Ärnlöv, J, Artaman, A, Aryal, KK, Asayesh, H, Asfaw, ET, Asgedom, SW, Asghar, RJ, Ashebir, MM, Asseffa, NA, Atey, TM, Atre, SR, Atteraya, MS, Avila-Burgos, L, Avokpaho, EFGA, Awasthi, A, Ayala Quintanilla, BP, Ayalew, AA, Ayele, HT, Ayer, R, Ayuk, TB, Azzopardi, P, Azzopardi-Muscat, N, Babalola, TK, Badali, H, Badawi, A, Banach, M, Banerjee, A, Banstola, A, Barber, RM, Barboza, MA, Barker-Collo, SL, Bärnighausen, T, Barquera, S, Barrero, LH, Bassat, Q, Basu, S, Baune, BT, Bazargan-Hejazi, S, Bedi, N and Beghi, E (2018). Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: A systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet. 391 (10136), pp. 2236-2271.
Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality and life expectancy, 1950-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Dicker, D, Nguyen, G, Abate, D, Abate, KH, Abay, SM, Abbafati, C, Abbasi, N, Abbastabar, H, Abd-Allah, F, Abdela, J, Abdelalim, A, Abdel-Rahman, O, Abdi, A, Abdollahpour, I, Abdulkader, RS, Abdurahman, AA, Abebe, HT, Abebe, M, Abebe, Z, Abebo, TA, Aboyans, V, Abraha, HN, Abrham, AR, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Abu-Rmeileh, NME, Accrombessi, MMK, Acharya, P, Adebayo, OM, Adedeji, IA, Adedoyin, RA, Adekanmbi, V, Adetokunboh, OO, Adhena, BM, Adhikari, TB, Adib, MG, Adou, AK, Adsuar, JC, Afarideh, M, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Aggarwal, R, Aghayan, SA, Agrawal, S, Agrawal, A, Ahmadi, M, Ahmadi, A, Ahmadieh, H, Ahmed, MLCB, Ahmed, S, Ahmed, MB, Aichour, AN, Aichour, I, Aichour, MTE, Akanda, AS, Akbari, ME, Akibu, M, Akinyemi, RO, Akinyemiju, T, Akseer, N, Alahdab, F, Al-Aly, Z, Alam, K, Alebel, A, Aleman, AV, Alene, KA, Al-Eyadhy, A, Ali, R, Alijanzadeh, M, Alizadeh-Navaei, R, Aljunid, SM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Allen, CA, Alonso, J, Al-Raddadi, RM, Alsharif, U, Altirkawi, K, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amare, AT, Amini, E, Ammar, W, Amoako, YA, Anber, NH, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Animut, MD, Anjomshoa, M, Anlay, DZ, Ansari, H, Ansariadi, A, Ansha, MG, Antonio, CAT, Appiah, SCY, Aremu, O, Areri, HA, Ärnlöv, J, Arora, M, Artaman, A and Aryal, KK (2018). Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality and life expectancy, 1950-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 392 (10159), pp. 1684-1735.
Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Lozano, R, Fullman, N, Abate, D, Abay, SM, Abbafati, C, Abbasi, N, Abbastabar, H, Abd-Allah, F, Abdela, J, Abdelalim, A, Abdel-Rahman, O, Abdi, A, Abdollahpour, I, Abdulkader, RS, Abebe, ND, Abebe, Z, Abejie, AN, Abera, SF, Abil, OZ, Aboyans, V, Abraha, HN, Abrham, AR, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Abu-Rmeileh, NM, Abyu, GY, Accrombessi, MMK, Acharya, D, Acharya, P, Adamu, AA, Adebayo, OM, Adedeji, IA, Adedoyin, RA, Adekanmbi, V, Adetokunboh, OO, Adhena, BM, Adhikari, TB, Adib, MG, Adou, AK, Adsuar, JC, Afarideh, M, Afshari, M, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Aghayan, SA, Agius, D, Agrawal, A, Agrawal, S, Ahmadi, A, Ahmadi, M, Ahmadieh, H, Ahmed, MB, Ahmed, S, Akalu, TY, Akanda, AS, Akbari, ME, Akibu, M, Akinyemi, RO, Akinyemiju, T, Akseer, N, Alahdab, F, Al-Aly, Z, Alam, K, Alam, T, Albujeer, A, Alebel, A, Alene, KA, Al-Eyadhy, A, Alhabib, S, Ali, R, Alijanzadeh, M, Alizadeh-Navaei, R, Aljunid, SM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Allen, CA, Almasi, A, Al-Maskari, F, Al-Mekhlafi, HM, Alonso, J, Al-Raddadi, RM, Alsharif, U, Altirkawi, K, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amare, AT, Amenu, K, Amini, E, Ammar, W, Anber, NH, Anderson, JA, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Animut, MD, Anjomshoa, M, Ansari, H, Ansariadi, A, Ansha, MG, Antonio, CAT, Anwari, P and Appiah, LT (2018). Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 392 (10159), pp. 2091-2138.
Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Murray, CJL, Callender, CSKH, Kulikoff, XR, Srinivasan, V, Abate, D, Abate, KH, Abay, SM, Abbasi, N, Abbastabar, H, Abdela, J, Abdelalim, A, Abdel-Rahman, O, Abdi, A, Abdoli, N, Abdollahpour, I, Abdulkader, RS, Abebe, HT, Abebe, M, Abebe, Z, Abebo, TA, Abejie, AN, Aboyans, V, Abraha, HN, Abreu, DMX, Abrham, AR, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Abu-Rmeileh, NME, Accrombessi, MMK, Acharya, P, Adamu, AA, Adebayo, OM, Adedeji, IA, Adekanmbi, V, Adetokunboh, OO, Adhena, BM, Adhikari, TB, Adib, MG, Adou, AK, Adsuar, JC, Afarideh, M, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Agesa, KM, Aghayan, SA, Agrawal, S, Ahmadi, A, Ahmadi, M, Ahmed, MB, Ahmed, S, Aichour, AN, Aichour, I, Aichour, MTE, Akanda, AS, Akbari, ME, Akibu, M, Akinyemi, RO, Akinyemiju, T, Akseer, N, Alahdab, F, Al-Aly, Z, Alam, K, Alebel, A, Aleman, AV, Alene, KA, Al-Eyadhy, A, Ali, R, Alijanzadeh, M, Alizadeh-Navaei, R, Aljunid, SM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Almasi, A, Alonso, J, Al-Raddadi, RM, Alsharif, U, Altirkawi, K, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amare, AT, Ammar, W, Anber, NH, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Animut, MD, Ansari, H, Ansha, MG, Antonio, CAT, Appiah, SCY, Aremu, O, Areri, HA, Arian, N, Ärnlöv, J, Artaman, A, Aryal, KK, Asayesh, H, Asfaw, ET, Asgedom, SW, Assadi, R, Atey, TMM and Atique, S (2018). Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 392 (10159), pp. 1995-2051.
Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 Diseases and Injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
James, SL, Abate, D, Abate, KH, Abay, SM, Abbafati, C, Abbasi, N, Abbastabar, H, Abd-Allah, F, Abdela, J, Abdelalim, A, Abdollahpour, I, Abdulkader, RS, Abebe, Z, Abera, SF, Abil, OZ, Abraha, HN, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Abu-Rmeileh, NME, Accrombessi, MMK, Acharya, D, Acharya, P, Ackerman, IN, Adamu, AA, Adebayo, OM, Adekanmbi, V, Adetokunboh, OO, Adib, MG, Adsuar, JC, Afanvi, KA, Afarideh, M, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Agesa, KM, Aggarwal, R, Aghayan, SA, Agrawal, S, Ahmadi, A, Ahmadi, M, Ahmadieh, H, Ahmed, MB, Aichour, AN, Aichour, I, Aichour, MTE, Akinyemiju, T, Akseer, N, Al-Aly, Z, Al-Eyadhy, A, Al-Mekhlafi, HM, Al-Raddadi, RM, Alahdab, F, Alam, K, Alam, T, Alashi, A, Alavian, SM, Alene, KA, Alijanzadeh, M, Alizadeh-Navaei, R, Aljunid, SM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Alouani, MML, Altirkawi, K, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amare, AT, Aminde, LN, Ammar, W, Amoako, YA, Anber, NH, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Animut, MD, Anjomshoa, M, Ansha, MG, Antonio, CAT, Anwari, P, Arabloo, J, Arauz, A, Aremu, O, Ariani, F, Armoon, B, Ärnlöv, J, Arora, A, Artaman, A, Aryal, KK, Asayesh, H, Asghar, RJ, Ataro, Z, Atre, SR, Ausloos, M, Avila-Burgos, L, Avokpaho, EFGA, Awasthi, A, Ayala Quintanilla, BP, Ayer, R, Azzopardi, PS, Babazadeh, A, Badali, H, Badawi, A and Bali, AG (2018). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 Diseases and Injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 392 (10159), pp. 1789-1858.
Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
Roth, GA, Abate, D, Abate, KH, Abay, SM, Abbafati, C, Abbasi, N, Abbastabar, H, Abd-Allah, F, Abdela, J, Abdelalim, A, Abdollahpour, I, Abdulkader, RS, Abebe, HT, Abebe, M, Abebe, Z, Abejie, AN, Abera, SF, Abil, OZ, Abraha, HN, Abrham, AR, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Accrombessi, MMK, Acharya, D, Adamu, AA, Adebayo, OM, Adedoyin, RA, Adekanmbi, V, Adetokunboh, OO, Adhena, BM, Adib, MG, Admasie, A, Afshin, A, Agarwal, G, Agesa, KM, Agrawal, A, Agrawal, S, Ahmadi, A, Ahmadi, M, Ahmed, MB, Ahmed, S, Aichour, AN, Aichour, I, Aichour, MTE, Akbari, ME, Akinyemi, RO, Akseer, N, Al-Aly, Z, Al-Eyadhy, A, Al-Raddadi, RM, Alahdab, F, Alam, K, Alam, T, Alebel, A, Alene, KA, Alijanzadeh, M, Alizadeh-Navaei, R, Aljunid, SM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allebeck, P, Alonso, J, Altirkawi, K, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amare, AT, Aminde, LN, Amini, E, Ammar, W, Amoako, YA, Anber, NH, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Animut, MD, Anjomshoa, M, Ansari, H, Ansha, MG, Antonio, CAT, Anwari, P, Aremu, O, Arnlov, J, Arora, A, Arora, M, Artaman, A, Aryal, KK, Asayesh, H, Asfaw, ET, Ataro, Z, Atique, S, Atre, SR, Ausloos, M, Avokpaho, EFGA, Awasthi, A, Ayala Quintanilla, BP, Ayele, Y, Ayer, R, Azzopardi, PS, Babazadeh, A, Bacha, U, Badali, H, Badawi, A and Herteliu, C. (2018). Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 392 (10159), pp. 1736-1788.
Hut-Like Pillar Si Solar Cells
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Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
Wang, H, Abajobir, AA, Abate, KH, Abbafati, C, Abbas, KM, Abd-Allah, F, Abera, SF, Abraha, HN, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Abu-Rmeileh, NME, Adedeji, IA, Adedoyin, RA, Adetifa, IMO, Adetokunboh, O, Afshin, A, Aggarwal, R, Agrawal, A, Agrawal, S, Ahmad Kiadaliri, A, Ahmed, MB, Aichour, AN, Aichour, I, Aichour, MTE, Aiyar, S, Akanda, AS, Akinyemiju, TF, Akseer, N, Al-Eyadhy, A, Al Lami, FH, Alabed, S, Alahdab, F, Al-Aly, Z, Alam, K, Alam, N, Alasfoor, D, Aldridge, RW, Alene, KA, Alhabib, S, Ali, R, Alizadeh-Navaei, R, Aljunid, SM, Alkaabi, JM, Alkerwi, A, Alla, F, Allam, SD, Allebeck, P, Al-Raddadi, R, Alsharif, U, Altirkawi, KA, Martin, EA, Alvis-Guzman, N, Amare, AT, Ameh, EA, Amini, E, Ammar, W, Amoako, YA, Anber, N, Andrei, CL, Androudi, S, Ansari, H, Ansha, MG, Antonio, CAT, Anwari, P, Ärnlöv, J, Arora, M, Artaman, A, Aryal, KK, Asayesh, H, Asgedom, SW, Asghar, RJ, Assadi, R, Atey, TM, Atre, SR, Avila-Burgos, L, Avokpaho, EFGA, Awasthi, A, Ayala Quintanilla, BP, Babalola, TK, Bacha, U, Badawi, A, Balakrishnan, K, Balalla, S, Barac, A, Barber, RM, Barboza, MA, Barker-Collo, SL, Bärnighausen, T, Barquera, S, Barregard, L, Barrero, LH, Baune, BT, Bazargan-Hejazi, S, Bedi, N, Beghi, E, Béjot, Y, Bekele, BB, Bell, ML, Bello, AK, Bennett, DA and Bennett, JR (2017). Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet. 390 (10100), pp. 1084-1150.
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of editor behavior through potentially coercive citations
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Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
Naghavi, Mohsen, Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu, Abbafati, Cristiana, Abbas, Kaja M, Abd-Allah, Foad, Abera, Semaw Ferede, Aboyans, Victor, Adetokunboh, Olatunji, Afshin, Ashkan, Agrawal, Anurag, Ahmadi, Alireza, Ahmed, Muktar Beshir, Aichour, Amani Nidhal, Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine, Aichour, Ibtihel, Aiyar, Sneha, Alahdab, Fares, Al-Aly, Ziyad, Alam, Khurshid, Alam, Noore, Alam, Tahiya, Alene, Kefyalew Addis, Al-Eyadhy, Ayman, Ali, Syed Danish, Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza, Alkaabi, Juma M, Alkerwi, Ala'a, Alla, François, Allebeck, Peter, Allen, Christine, Al-Raddadi, Rajaa, Alsharif, Ubai, Altirkawi, Khalid A, Alvis-Guzman, Nelson, Amare, Azmeraw T, Amini, Erfan, Ammar, Walid, Amoako, Yaw Ampem, Anber, Nahla, Andersen, Hjalte H, Andrei, Catalina Liliana, Androudi, Sofia, Ansari, Hossein, Antonio, Carl Abelardo T, Anwari, Palwasha, Ärnlöv, Johan, Arora, Megha, Artaman, Al, Aryal, Krishna Kumar, Asayesh, Hamid, Asgedom, Solomon W, Atey, Tesfay Mehari, Avila-Burgos, Leticia, Avokpaho, Euripide 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