Achilles tendon is mechanosensitive in old adults: a 1.5 year resistance training intervention

Conference item


Epro, G, Mierau, A, Doerner, J, Luetkens, J, Scheef, L, Kukuk, G, Boecker, H, Maganaris, C and Karamanidis, K (2017). Achilles tendon is mechanosensitive in old adults: a 1.5 year resistance training intervention. BASES Biomechanics Interest Group (BIG) Meeting 2017. Portsmouth, UK 19 - 19 May 2017 London South Bank University.
AuthorsEpro, G, Mierau, A, Doerner, J, Luetkens, J, Scheef, L, Kukuk, G, Boecker, H, Maganaris, C and Karamanidis, K
Abstract

INTRODUCTION The aging tendon experiences general degeneration in its structure and function, which is usually described through a diminished ability to adapt to environmental stress as a consequence of deteriorated tissue homeostasis. Tendons of older adults have shown to increase their stiffness after medium-term (12-14 weeks) exercise interventions foremost through an increased Young’s modulus, rather than tendon hypertrophy (Reeves et al., 2003). Nonetheless, there is limited knowledge about the time-adaptive response relationship of tendons experiencing long-term (years) mechanical loading interventions. Therefore, the current study investigated if the older human Achilles tendon (AT) exhibits mechanosensitivity by altering its material and/or morphological properties in response to a long-term mechanical loading exercise intervention. METHODS Thirty-four older female adults (age: 65±7 y) voluntarily took part in a medium-term (14 weeks; n=21) strength training intervention using high AT strain cyclic loading (isometric plantarflexion contractions with 90% of MVC for five sets of four repetitions 3 times a week as provided by Arampatzis et al., 2007) or a control group (n=13). A sub-group of the intervention group (n=12) continued the exercise for 1.5 years (long-term intervention). In order to analyse the AT stiffness and Young’s modulus in vivo, ultrasonography and dynamometry were used simultaneously. Tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined along the whole free AT by using custom routines on image sequences obtained through magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS Following 14 weeks of resistance training, the intervention group had a significantly (p<0.05) increased ankle plantarflexor muscle strength (141.5±36.2 vs 116.3±30.8 Nm at baseline), together with a 23% higher AT stiffness (598.2±141.2 Nmm-1 vs 488.4±136.9 Nmm-1 at baseline), 20% greater Young’s modulus (1.63±0.46 GPa vs 1.37±0.39 GPa at baseline) and a homogenous hypertrophy along the entire free AT (approximately 6%). However, despite continuing the strength training intervention for 1.5 years, no further alterations in the muscle strength and tendon properties were found. The control group had no differences neither in muscle or tendon biomechanical properties between measurement time points. DISCUSSION The aged AT appears to be able to increase its stiffness in response to medium-term (14 weeks) mechanical loading exercise through changes in both material and morphological properties. Continuing strength training seems rather to maintain, than cause any further adaptive modifications in tendon properties, which indicates that in ageing tendons the time-adaptive response relationship to mechanical loading is non-linear. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the current study gives evidence that the human AT preserves its mechano-sensitivity in old age and seems to have the capability to increase its stiffness by changing both its material and dimensions and may thereby tolerate higher mechanical loading due to a reduced strain and stress it experiences during tensile loading. REFERENCES Arampatzis, A et al., (2007). J Exp Biol, 210, 2743–2753. doi:10.1242/jeb.003814 Reeves, N et al., (2003). J Physiol, 548, 971–981. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2002.035576

Year2017
PublisherLondon South Bank University
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY 4.0
Publication dates
Print19 May 2017
Publication process dates
Deposited22 May 2017
Accepted28 Mar 2017
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/86z4x

  • 3
    total views
  • 1
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Related outputs

Evidence of a Uniform Muscle-Tendon Unit Adaptation in Healthy Elite Track and Field Jumpers: A Cross Sectional Investigation.
Epro, G, Hunter, S, König, M, Schade, F and Karamanidis, K (2019). Evidence of a Uniform Muscle-Tendon Unit Adaptation in Healthy Elite Track and Field Jumpers: A Cross Sectional Investigation. Frontiers in physiology. 10, p. 574.
Stability-normalised walking speed: A new approach for human gait perturbation research
McCrum, C, Willems, P, Karamanidis, K and Meijer, K (2019). Stability-normalised walking speed: A new approach for human gait perturbation research. Journal of Biomechanics.
Retention, savings and interlimb transfer of reactive gait adaptations in humans following unexpected perturbations
McCrum, C, Karamanidis, K, Willems, P, Zijlstra, W and Meijer, K (2018). Retention, savings and interlimb transfer of reactive gait adaptations in humans following unexpected perturbations. Communications biology. 1 (1), p. 230.
Retention of improvement in gait stability over 14 weeks due to trip-perturbation training is dependent on perturbation dose
König, M, Epro, G, Seeley, J, Catalá-Lehnen, P, Potthast, W and Karamanidis, K (2018). Retention of improvement in gait stability over 14 weeks due to trip-perturbation training is dependent on perturbation dose. Journal of Biomechanics. 84, pp. 243-246.
Matching Participants for Triceps Surae Muscle Strength and Tendon Stiffness Does Not Eliminate Age-Related Differences in Mechanical Power Output During Jumping
Koenig, M, Hemmers, S, Epro, G, McCrum, C, Ackermans, TMA, Hartmann, U and Karamanidis, K (2018). Matching Participants for Triceps Surae Muscle Strength and Tendon Stiffness Does Not Eliminate Age-Related Differences in Mechanical Power Output During Jumping. Frontiers in physiology. 9, p. 1345.
Positive Work Contribution Shifts from Distal to Proximal Joints during a Prolonged Run
Sanno, M, Willwacher, S, Epro, G and Brüggemann, G-P (2018). Positive Work Contribution Shifts from Distal to Proximal Joints during a Prolonged Run. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
The role of muscle strength on tendon adaptability in old age
Holzer, D, Epro, G, McCrum, C, Doerner, J, Luetkens, JA, Scheef, L, Kukuk, GM, Boecker, H, Mierau, A, Brüggemann, G-P, Maganaris, CN and Karamanidis, K (2018). The role of muscle strength on tendon adaptability in old age. European Journal of Applied Physiology.
Effects of Corrective Training on Drop Landing Ground Reaction Force Characteristics and Lower Limb Kinematics in Older Adults With Genu Valgus: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Jafarnezhadgero, A, Madadi-Shad, M, McCrum, C and Karamanidis, K (2018). Effects of Corrective Training on Drop Landing Ground Reaction Force Characteristics and Lower Limb Kinematics in Older Adults With Genu Valgus: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity.
Retention of gait stability improvements over 1.5 years in older adults: effects of perturbation exposure and triceps surae neuromuscular exercise.
Epro, G, Mierau, A, McCrum, C, Leyendecker, M, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2018). Retention of gait stability improvements over 1.5 years in older adults: effects of perturbation exposure and triceps surae neuromuscular exercise. Journal of Neurophysiology.
Alterations in Leg Extensor Muscle-Tendon Unit Biomechanical Properties With Ageing and Mechanical Loading.
McCrum, C, Leow, P, Epro, G, König, M, Meijer, K and Karamanidis, K (2018). Alterations in Leg Extensor Muscle-Tendon Unit Biomechanical Properties With Ageing and Mechanical Loading. Frontiers in physiology. 9, p. 150.
Effects of triceps surae muscle strength and tendon stiffness on the reactive dynamic stability and adaptability of older female adults during perturbed walking.
Epro, G, McCrum, C, Mierau, A, Leyendecker, M, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2018). Effects of triceps surae muscle strength and tendon stiffness on the reactive dynamic stability and adaptability of older female adults during perturbed walking. Journal of Applied Physiology.
Loading rate and contraction type effects on the human Achilles tendon force-elongation relationship
McCrum, C, Oberländer, KD, Epro, G, Krauss, P, Reeves, N and Karamanidis, K (2017). Loading rate and contraction type effects on the human Achilles tendon force-elongation relationship. 22nd Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Essen, Germany 05 - 08 Jul 2017 London South Bank University.
Loading rate and contraction duration effects on in vivo human Achilles tendon mechanical properties.
McCrum, C, Oberländer, KD, Epro, G, Krauss, P, James, DC, Reeves, N and Karamanidis, K (2017). Loading rate and contraction duration effects on in vivo human Achilles tendon mechanical properties. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging.
Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.
Karamanidis, K, Oberländer, KD, Niehoff, A, Epro, G and Brüggemann, G-P (2014). Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly. PLoS ONE. 9 (6).
Muscle-tendon adaptation monitoring in elite athletes: Preliminary results from a longitudinal investigation
Epro, G, Koenig, M, McCrum, C, Baedorf, M, Schade, F and Karamanidis, K (2017). Muscle-tendon adaptation monitoring in elite athletes: Preliminary results from a longitudinal investigation. 35th Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sport. Cologne, Germany 14 - 18 Jun 2017 London South Bank University.
Achilles tendon mechanosensitivity is preserved in old age: In vivo evidence from a 1.5 years long resistance training intervention
Epro, G, Mierau, A, Doerner, J, Luetkens, J, Scheef, L, Kukuk, G, Boecker, H, Maganaris, C, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2017). Achilles tendon mechanosensitivity is preserved in old age: In vivo evidence from a 1.5 years long resistance training intervention. 22nd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Essen, Germany 05 - 08 Jul 2017 London South Bank University.
Matching participants for triceps surae mechanical properties eliminates age-related differences in drop jump performance
Koenig, M, Hemmers, S, McCrum, C, Epro, G, Ackermans, TMA, Hartmann, U and Karamanidis, K (2016). Matching participants for triceps surae mechanical properties eliminates age-related differences in drop jump performance. 11th Joint Conference on Motor Control & Learning, Biomechanics & Training of the German Society of Sports Sciences. Darmstadt, Germany 28 - 30 Sep 2016 London South Bank University.
Deficient recovery response and adaptive feedback potential in dynamic gait stability in unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder patients.
McCrum, C, Eysel-Gosepath, K, Epro, G, Meijer, K, Savelberg, HHCM, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2014). Deficient recovery response and adaptive feedback potential in dynamic gait stability in unilateral peripheral vestibular disorder patients. Physiological Reports. 2 (12), pp. 1-10.
Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan.
McCrum, C, Epro, G, Meijer, K, Zijlstra, W, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2016). Locomotor stability and adaptation during perturbed walking across the adult female lifespan. Journal of Biomechanics. 49 (7), pp. 1244-1247.
Visual and proprioceptive contributions to postural control of upright stance in unilateral vestibulopathy.
Eysel-Gosepath, K, McCrum, C, Epro, G, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2016). Visual and proprioceptive contributions to postural control of upright stance in unilateral vestibulopathy. Somatosensory and Motor Research. 33 (2), pp. 72-78.
Aging and the effects of a half marathon on Achilles tendon force-elongation relationship.
Ackermans, TMA, Epro, G, McCrum, C, Oberländer, KD, Suhr, F, Drost, MR, Meijer, K and Karamanidis, K (2016). Aging and the effects of a half marathon on Achilles tendon force-elongation relationship. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 116 (11-12), pp. 2281-2292.
Use of a Lucas-Kanade-Based Template Tracking Algorithm to Examine In Vivo Tendon Excursion during Voluntary Contraction Using Ultrasonography.
Karamanidis, K, Travlou, A, Krauss, P and Jaekel, U (2016). Use of a Lucas-Kanade-Based Template Tracking Algorithm to Examine In Vivo Tendon Excursion during Voluntary Contraction Using Ultrasonography. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. 42 (7), pp. 1689-1700.
Effect of long-term exercise-induced changes of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit properties on maximal walking velocity in the elderly
Epro, G, Mierau, A, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2017). Effect of long-term exercise-induced changes of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit properties on maximal walking velocity in the elderly. 10. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Biomechanik (DGfB). Hannover, Germany 29 - 31 Mar 2017 London South Bank University.
Muscle and tendon adaptation in young and older adult athletes: A combined longitudinal and cross sectional investigation
Koenig, M, Epro, G, McCrum, C, Ackermans, TMA, Schade, F and Karamanidis, K (2017). Muscle and tendon adaptation in young and older adult athletes: A combined longitudinal and cross sectional investigation. 10. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Biomechanik. Hannover 29 - 31 Mar 2017 London South Bank University.
Simplified triceps surae muscle volume assessment in the elderly
Epro, G, Koenig, M, Mersmann, F, Arampatzis, A and Karamanidis, K (2017). Simplified triceps surae muscle volume assessment in the elderly. 10. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Biomechanik (DGfB). Hannover, Germany 29 - 31 Mar 2017 London South Bank University.
The Achilles tendon is mechanosensitive in older adults: adaptations following 14 weeks versus 1.5 years of cyclic strain exercise.
Epro, G, Mierau, A, Doerner, J, Luetkens, J, Scheef, L, Kukuk, G, Boecker, H, Maganaris, C, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2017). The Achilles tendon is mechanosensitive in older adults: adaptations following 14 weeks versus 1.5 years of cyclic strain exercise. Journal of Experimental Biology. 220 (Pt 6), pp. 1008-1018.
A systematic review of gait perturbation paradigms for improving reactive stepping responses and falls risk among healthy older adults.
McCrum, C, Gerards, MHG, Karamanidis, K, Zijlstra, W and Meijer, K (2017). A systematic review of gait perturbation paradigms for improving reactive stepping responses and falls risk among healthy older adults. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity. 14, p. 3.
Age-related differences in drop-jump performance are eliminated by matching triceps surae muscle strength and Achilles tendon stiffness.
Koenig, M, Hemmers, S, McCrum, C, Epro, G, Ackermans, TMA, Hartmann, U and Karamanidis, K (2017). Age-related differences in drop-jump performance are eliminated by matching triceps surae muscle strength and Achilles tendon stiffness. 2017 BASES Biomechanics Interest Group (BIG) Meeting, Portsmouth. Portsmouth 19 - 19 Apr 2017 London South Bank University.
The effect of habitual athletics training on muscle and tendon adaptation in young and older elite athletes.
Koenig, M, Epro, G, McCrum, C, Bädorf, M, Schade, F and Karamanidis, K (2017). The effect of habitual athletics training on muscle and tendon adaptation in young and older elite athletes. 2017 BASES Biomechanics Interest Group (BIG) Meeting, Portsmouth. Portsmouth 19 - 19 Apr 2017 London South Bank University.
Age-related differences in drop jump performance are eliminated when triceps surae mechanical properties are matched
Koenig, M, Hemmers, S, McCrum, C, Epro, G, Ackermans, TMA, Hartmann, U and Karamanidis, K (2016). Age-related differences in drop jump performance are eliminated when triceps surae mechanical properties are matched. Dutch Society for Movement Sciences (VvBN) PhD Day 2016. Maastricht 09 - 09 Nov 2016 London South Bank University.
Associations Between Bipedal Stance Stability and Locomotor Stability Following a Trip in Unilateral Vestibulopathy
McCrum, C, Eysel-Gosepath, K, Epro, G, Meijer, K, Savelberg, HHCM, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2017). Associations Between Bipedal Stance Stability and Locomotor Stability Following a Trip in Unilateral Vestibulopathy. Journal of applied biomechanics. 33 (2), pp. 112-117.
EFFECT OF TRICEPS SURAE MUSCLE-TENDON UNIT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ON GAIT STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY IN OLDER FEMALE ADULTS
Epro, G, McCrum, C, Mierau, A, Leyendecker, M, Brüggemann, G-P and Karamanidis, K (2017). EFFECT OF TRICEPS SURAE MUSCLE-TENDON UNIT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ON GAIT STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY IN OLDER FEMALE ADULTS. BASES Biomechanics Interest Group (BIG) Meeting 2017. Portsmouth, UK 19 - 19 Apr 2017 London South Bank University.
Matching triceps surae muscle strength and tendon stiffness eliminates age-related differences in drop-jump performance
Koenig, M, Hemmers, S, McCrum, C, Epro, G, Ackermans, TMA, Hartmann, U and Karamanidis, K (2017). Matching triceps surae muscle strength and tendon stiffness eliminates age-related differences in drop-jump performance. 35th International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports. Cologne 14 - 18 Jun 2017 London South Bank University.
Monitoring muscle-tendon adaptation in elite athletes: Preliminary data from a 1-year longitudinal investigation
Koenig, M, Epro, G, McCrum, C, Bädorf, M, Schade, F and Karamanidis, K (2017). Monitoring muscle-tendon adaptation in elite athletes: Preliminary data from a 1-year longitudinal investigation. 22nd annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science (ECSS). Essen 05 - 08 Jul 2017 London South Bank University.