How COVID-19 has affected staffing models in intensive care: A qualitative study examining alternative staffing models (SEISMIC).

Journal article


Endacott, R., Pearce, S., Rae, P., Richardson, A., Bench, S., Pattison, N. and SEISMIC Study Team (2021). How COVID-19 has affected staffing models in intensive care: A qualitative study examining alternative staffing models (SEISMIC). Journal of Advanced Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15081
AuthorsEndacott, R., Pearce, S., Rae, P., Richardson, A., Bench, S., Pattison, N. and SEISMIC Study Team
AbstractTo understand how COVID-19 affected nurse staffing in intensive care units (ICUs) in England, and to identify factors that influenced, and were influenced by, pandemic staffing models. Exploratory qualitative study. Semi-structured, online interviews conducted July-September 2020 with regional critical care leaders including policy leads (n = 4) and directors/lead nurses (n = 10) across critical care networks in England. The six themes emerging from the framework analysis illustrate how the pre-pandemic ICU culture influenced ICU staffing models during the pandemic. Changes in staffing impacted on the workforce and the care delivered, whilst it was necessary to learn from, and adjust to, a rapidly changing situation. Variation across and between networks necessitated variation in responses. The overwhelming outcome was that the pandemic has challenged the central tenets of ICU nurse staffing. Pandemic nurse staffing models resulted in changes to ICU skill-mix and staffing numbers. Factors such as the impact of nurse staffing on care practices and on the workforce need to be taken into account when developing and testing future nurse staffing models for ICU. The extent to which ICUs will return to former staffing models is not yet known but there seems to be an appetite for change. In common with many countries, nurse staffing in English ICUs was adapted to address surge requirements during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings highlight the challenge COVID-19 presented to pre-pandemic ICU nurse staffing guidelines, the impact on patient and staff well-being and the potential legacy for future staffing models. Study findings have implications for ICU nurse managers, researchers and policy makers: nurse staffing models need to be adaptable to the local context of care and future research should investigate the impact of different models on patients, staff and health service outcomes. [Abstract copyright: © 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.]
KeywordsCOVID-19; nursing workforce; nurses; qualitative; intensive care
Year2021
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
PublisherWiley
ISSN1365-2648
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15081
Funder/ClientNational Institute for Health Research
Publication dates
Print15 Nov 2021
Online15 Nov 2021
Publication process dates
Deposited13 Oct 2021
Accepted26 Sep 2021
Accepted author manuscript
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File Access Level
Open
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This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: How COVID-19 has affected staffing models in intensive care: a qualitative study examining alternative staffing models (SEISMIC), which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2648. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited

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