Growth abnormalities of fetuses and infants

Journal article


Cosmi, E, Grisan, E, Fanos, V, Rizzo, G, Sivanandam, S and Visentin, S (2017). Growth abnormalities of fetuses and infants. BioMed Research International. 2017.
AuthorsCosmi, E, Grisan, E, Fanos, V, Rizzo, G, Sivanandam, S and Visentin, S
Abstract

The objective of this special issue is to address recent research trends and developments about the advancements of image processing and vision in healthcare. A substantial number of papers were submitted, and after a thorough peer review process, some of these were selected to be included in this special issue. Growth abnormalities (either growth restriction or large for gestational age) during perinatal and postnatal life are a hot topic issue, since they are often linked to alteration of uterine environment caused by placental insufficiency, maternal metabolic syndrome, and in general under- or overnutrition of the fetus. These fetal abnormalities account for the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, under the hypothesis of developmental origin of adult diseases, they bear consequences in later life, programming the infant physiology for a higher risk of noncommunicable diseases, cardiovascular adult diseases, and neurodevelopment delay. Low birth weight, caused either by preterm birth and/or by intrauterine growth restriction, is recently known to be associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and noninsulin dependent diabetes in adult life. The “developmental origins of adult disease” hypothesis, often called “the Barker hypothesis,” proposes that these diseases originate through adaptations of the fetus when it is undernourished. These adaptations may be cardiovascular, metabolic, or endocrine and they may permanently change the structure and function of the body, increasing coronary heart disease risk factors, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidaemia. This hypothesis originally involved from observation by Barker and colleagues that the regions in England with the highest rates of infant mortality in the early 20th century also had the highest rates of mortality from coronary heart disease decades later. As the most commonly registered cause of infant death at the start of 20th century was low birth weight, these observations led to the hypothesis that low birth weight babies who survived infancy and childhood might be at increased risk of coronary heart disease in later life. There is an increased evidence of the link between intrauterine and perinatal alterations and adult diseases. Although the main focus so far has been the timing of delivery and follow-up, the study of the pathophysiology and of possible recovery is of paramount importance and needs the contributions of physicians from several fields, biologists, bioinformaticians, and engineers.

Year2017
JournalBioMed Research International
Journal citation2017
ISSN2314-6133
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:https://www.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3191308
Web address (URL)https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85039148336&doi=10.1155%2f2017%2f3191308&partnerID=40&md5=d2ec6e184981340145802af7040f2396
Publication dates
Print22 Nov 2017
Publication process dates
Accepted27 Sep 2017
Deposited17 Jan 2020
Publisher's version
License
CC BY 4.0
File Access Level
Open
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