Patterns of load distribution among the legs in small water striders during standing and striding

Journal article


Meshkani, J., Rajabi, H., Kovalev, A. and Gorb, S. N. (2023). Patterns of load distribution among the legs in small water striders during standing and striding. Journal of Zoology. 320 (2), pp. 84-95. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.13066
AuthorsMeshkani, J., Rajabi, H., Kovalev, A. and Gorb, S. N.
Abstract

Water striders (Gerris argentatus) move across the water surface by taking advantage of the surface tension, which supports their bodyweight without breaking. During locomotion, the midlegs are primarily responsible for generating thrust, whereas the other legs support the body. Although the aspects of standing and locomotion on the water surface are well understood, relatively fewer studies concerned the coordinated biomechanical movements of the legs. In order to maintain buoyancy of the body on the water surface, the leg positions must be adjusted to distribute the bodyweight appropriately. The present study investigates distribution of the bodyweight on the legs in relatively small water striders. We aimed to understand how loading on the legs changes during sculling that leads to sliding of the body on the water surface. The assistance of all legs at every moment enables the body to maintain its floating during standing and striding. Water striders can achieve a gentle striding through the midlegs driving phase in association with smooth load shifting among their legs, which are positioned in a specific configuration to support the insect on the water surface.

KeywordsAnimal Science and Zoology; Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Year2023
JournalJournal of Zoology
Journal citation320 (2), pp. 84-95
PublisherWiley
ISSN0952-8369
1469-7998
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.13066
Publication dates
Online26 Apr 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted31 May 2023
Deposited10 May 2023
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/93z2y

  • 10
    total views
  • 4
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

A ballistic pollen dispersal strategy based on stylar oscillation of Hypochaeris radicata (Asteraceae)
Ito, S., Rajabi, H. and Gorb, S. N. A ballistic pollen dispersal strategy based on stylar oscillation of Hypochaeris radicata (Asteraceae). Journal of Experimental Biology. 226 (6). https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.244258
Basal complex: a smart wing component for automatic shape morphing
Eraghi, S.H., Toofani, A., Guilani, R.J.A., Ramezanpour, S., Bijma, N.N., Sedaghat, A., Yasamandaryaei, A.;, Gorb, S. and Rajabi Jorshari, H. (2023). Basal complex: a smart wing component for automatic shape morphing. Communications biology. 6, p. 853. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-023-05206-1
Double‐spirals offer the development of pre‐programmable modular metastructures
Jafarpour, M., Gorb, S.N. and Rajabi, H. (2023). Double‐spirals offer the development of pre‐programmable modular metastructures. Advanced Engineering Materials. 25 (13), p. 2300102. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.202300102
In Situ Reconfigurable Continuum Robot with Varying Curvature Enabled by Programmable Tensegrity Building Blocks
Zhang, J., Shi, J., Huang, J., Wu, Q., Zhao, Y., Yang, J., Rajabi, H., Wu, Z., Peng, H. and Wu, J. (2023). In Situ Reconfigurable Continuum Robot with Varying Curvature Enabled by Programmable Tensegrity Building Blocks. Advanced Intelligent Systems. 5 (7), p. 2300048. https://doi.org/10.1002/aisy.202300048
A Preprogrammable Continuum Robot Inspired by Elephant Trunk for Dexterous Manipulation
Zhang, J., Li, Y., Kan, Z., Yuan, Q., Rajabi, H., Wu, Z., Peng, H. and Wu, J. (2023). A Preprogrammable Continuum Robot Inspired by Elephant Trunk for Dexterous Manipulation. Soft Robotics. https://doi.org/10.1089/soro.2022.0048
Double-spiral: a bioinspired pre-programmable compliant joint with multiple degrees of freedom
Jafarpour, M., Gorb, S. and Rajabi Jorshari, H. (2023). Double-spiral: a bioinspired pre-programmable compliant joint with multiple degrees of freedom. Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 20 (198). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2022.0757
The frequency of wing damage in a migrating butterfly
Korkmaz, R., Rajabi, H., Eshghi, S., Gorb, S.N. and Büscher, T. (2022). The frequency of wing damage in a migrating butterfly. Insect Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.13153
An insect-inspired asymmetric hinge in a double-layer membrane
Rajabi, H., Eraghi, S.H., Khaheshi, A., Toofani, A., Hunt, C. and Wootton, R.J. (2022). An insect-inspired asymmetric hinge in a double-layer membrane. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 119 (45), p. e2211861119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2211861119
Versatile Like a Seahorse Tail: A Bio-Inspired Programmable Continuum Robot For Conformal Grasping
Zhang, J., Hu, Y., Li, Y., Ma, K., Wei, Y., Yang, J., Wu, Z., Rajabi Jorshari, H., Peng, H. and Wu, J. (2022). Versatile Like a Seahorse Tail: A Bio-Inspired Programmable Continuum Robot For Conformal Grasping. Advanced Intelligent Systems. p. 2200263. https://doi.org/10.1002/aisy.202200263
Mechanical Intelligence (MI): A Bioinspired Concept for Transforming Engineering Design
Khaheshi Hasankiadeh, A. and Rajabi Jorshari, H. (2022). Mechanical Intelligence (MI): A Bioinspired Concept for Transforming Engineering Design. Advanced Science. https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202203783
Conflicting requirements for transparency and mechanical stability in the compound eyes of desert locusts
Li, C., Rajabi, H. and Gorb, S. (2022). Conflicting requirements for transparency and mechanical stability in the compound eyes of desert locusts. Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2200766. https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.202200766
An image based application in Matlab for automated modelling and morphological analysis of insect wings
Eshghi, S., Nabati, Shafaghi, S., Nooraeefar, V., Darvizeh, A., Gorb, S. and Rajabi, H. (2022). An image based application in Matlab for automated modelling and morphological analysis of insect wings. Scientific Reports. 12, p. 13917. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-17859-9
Effect of sample treatment on the elastic modulus of locust cuticle obtained by nanoindentation
Li, C., Gorb, S. and Rajabi, H. (2022). Effect of sample treatment on the elastic modulus of locust cuticle obtained by nanoindentation. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology. 13, p. 404–410. https://doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.13.33
The damping properties of the foam‑filled shaft of primary feathers of the pigeon Columba livia
Rajabi, H., Deng, K., Kovalev, A., Schaber, C., Dai, Z. D. and Gorb, S. (2022). The damping properties of the foam‑filled shaft of primary feathers of the pigeon Columba livia. The Science of Nature Naturwissenschaften. 109 (1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-021-01773-7
Fin Ray Crossbeam Angles for Efficient Foot Design for Energy‐Efficient Robot Locomotion
Manoonpong, P., Rajabi, Hamed, Larsen, Jørgen C., Raoufi, Seyed S., Asawalertsak, Naris, Homchanthanakul, J., Tramsen, Halvor T., Darvizeh, Abolfazl and Gorb, S. (2021). Fin Ray Crossbeam Angles for Efficient Foot Design for Energy‐Efficient Robot Locomotion. Advanced Intelligent Systems. p. 2100133. https://doi.org/10.1002/aisy.202100133
Wing Coupling in Bees and Wasps: From the Underlying Science to Bioinspired Engineering
Eraghi, S., Toofani, A., Khaheshi, A., Khorsandi, M., Darvizeh, A., Gorb, S. and Rajabi Jorshari, H. (2021). Wing Coupling in Bees and Wasps: From the Underlying Science to Bioinspired Engineering. Advanced Science. 8 (16), p. 2004383. https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004383
Excavation mechanics of the elongated female rostrum of the acorn weevil Curculio glandium (Coleoptera; Curculionidae)
Matsumura, Y., Jafarpour, M., Reut, M., Shams Moattar, M., Darvizeh, A., Gorb, S. and Rajabi Jorshari, H. (2021). Excavation mechanics of the elongated female rostrum of the acorn weevil Curculio glandium (Coleoptera; Curculionidae). Applied Physics A. 127 (348). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-021-04353-8
Spiky-joint: a bioinspired solution to combine mobility and support
Ali Khaheshi, Stanislav N. Gorb and Rajabi Jorshari, H. (2021). Spiky-joint: a bioinspired solution to combine mobility and support. Applied Physics A. 127 (181). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-021-04310-5
Triple Stiffness: A Bioinspired Strategy to Combine Load‐Bearing, Durability, and Impact‐Resistance
Ali Khaheshi, Stanislav Gorb and Rajabi Jorshari, H. (2021). Triple Stiffness: A Bioinspired Strategy to Combine Load‐Bearing, Durability, and Impact‐Resistance. Advanced Science. 8 (11), p. 2004338. https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004338
Insects: Functional Morphology, Biomechanics and Biomimetics
Rajabi, H., Wu, J. and Gorb, S. (2021). Insects: Functional Morphology, Biomechanics and Biomimetics. Insects. 12 (12), p. 1108. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121108
Biomechanical strategies to reach a compromise between stiffness and flexibility in hind femora of desert locusts
Li. C., Gorb, S. and Rajabi, H. (2021). Biomechanical strategies to reach a compromise between stiffness and flexibility in hind femora of desert locusts. Acta Biomaterialia. 134, pp. 490-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.07.030
Elytra coupling of the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata functions as an energy absorber in intentional falls
Rajabi, H., Zhang, J., Yuan, Q., Jiang, Y., Pang, H., Wu, Z. and Wu, J. (2021). Elytra coupling of the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata functions as an energy absorber in intentional falls. Bioinspiration & biomimetics. 16, p. 056018. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/ac1cef
The damping and structural properties of dragonfly and damselfly wings during dynamic movement
Lietz, C., Schaber, C.F., Gorb, S.N. and Hamed, R. (2021). The damping and structural properties of dragonfly and damselfly wings during dynamic movement. Communications biology. 4, p. 737. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02263-2
Double-rowed teeth: design specialization of the H. venator ants for enhanced tribological stability
Zhang, W., Wu, Z., Wang, Z., Wang, Z., Li, C., Rajabi, H. and Wu, J. (2021). Double-rowed teeth: design specialization of the H. venator ants for enhanced tribological stability. Bioinspiration & biomimetics. 16 (5), p. 055003. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/ac124a
Sperm transfer through hyper-elongated beetle penises – morphology and theoretical approaches
Matsumura, Y., Michels, J., Rajabi Jorshari, H., Shimozawa, T. and Gorb, S.N. (2019). Sperm transfer through hyper-elongated beetle penises – morphology and theoretical approaches. Scientific Reports. 9, p. 10238. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46211-x
The probability of the wing damage in the dragonfly Sympetrum vulgatum (Anisoptera: Libellulidae): a field study
Rajabi Jorshari, H., Schroeter, V., Eshghi, S. and Gorb, S. (2017). The probability of the wing damage in the dragonfly Sympetrum vulgatum (Anisoptera: Libellulidae): a field study. Biology Open. 6 (9), pp. 1290-1293. https://doi.org/10.1242/bio.027078
Resilin microjoints: A smart design strategy to avoid failure in dragonfly wings
Rajabi Jorshari, H., Shafiei, A., Darvizeh, A. and Gorb, S.N. (2016). Resilin microjoints: A smart design strategy to avoid failure in dragonfly wings. Scientific Reports. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep39039
Effect of microstructure on the mechanical and damping behaviour of dragonfly wing veins
Rajabi Jorshari, H., Shafiei, A., Darvizeh, A., Dirks, J.-H., Appel, E. and Gorb, S.N. (2016). Effect of microstructure on the mechanical and damping behaviour of dragonfly wing veins. Royal Society Open Science. 3 (2). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160006
Basal complex and basal venation of Odonata wings: Structural diversity and potential role in the wing deformation
Rajabi Jorshari, H., Ghoroubi, N., Malaki, M., Darvizeh, A. and Gorb, S.N. (2016). Basal complex and basal venation of Odonata wings: Structural diversity and potential role in the wing deformation. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160610