A comparison study into low leak rate buoyant gas dispersion in a small fuel cell enclosure using plain and louvre vent passive ventilation schemes

Journal article


Ghatauray, TS, Ingram, JM and Holborn, PG (2018). A comparison study into low leak rate buoyant gas dispersion in a small fuel cell enclosure using plain and louvre vent passive ventilation schemes. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.
AuthorsGhatauray, TS, Ingram, JM and Holborn, PG
Abstract

Hydrogen, producing electricity in fuel cells, is a versatile energy source, but with risks associated with flammability. Fuel cells use enclosures for protection which need ventilating to remove hydrogen emitted during normal operation or from supply system leaks. Passive ventilation, using buoyancy driven flow is preferred to mechanical systems. Performance depends upon vent design, size, shape, position and number. Vents are usually plain rectangular openings, but environmentally situated enclosures use louvres for protection. The effect of louvres on passive ventilation is not clear and has therefore been examined in this paper. Comparison ‘same opening area’ louvre and plain vent tests were undertaken using a 0.144 m3 enclosure with opposing upper and lower vents and helium leaking from a 4 mm nozzle on the base at rates from 1 to 10 lpm, simulating a hydrogen leak. Louvres increased stratified level helium concentrations by typically in excess of 15 %. The empirical data obtained was also used in a validation exercise with a SolidWorks: Flow Simulation CFD model, which provided a good qualitative representation of flow behaviour and close empirical data correlations.

Keywordshydrogen safety; Passive ventilation; Buoyant gas; Louvre vent; Helium; SolidWorks Flow Simulation CFD; 09 Engineering; 03 Chemical Sciences; Energy
Year2018
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.08.065
Publication dates
Print24 Sep 2018
Publication process dates
Deposited03 Sep 2018
Accepted09 Aug 2018
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/86953

Accepted author manuscript

  • 5
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 2
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Related outputs

An analysis of civil aviation industry safety needs for the introduction of liquid hydrogen propulsion technology
Benson, CM, Ingram, JM, Battersby, PA, Mba, D, Sethi, V and Rolt, AM (2019). An analysis of civil aviation industry safety needs for the introduction of liquid hydrogen propulsion technology. TURBO EXPO Turbomachinery Technical Conference & Exposition. Phoenix AZ, USA 18 - 20 Jun 2019
Causes, Consequences and Prevention of Refrigeration Fires in Residential Dwellings
Beasley, M, Holborn, P, Ingram, J and Maidment, G (2018). Causes, Consequences and Prevention of Refrigeration Fires in Residential Dwellings. Fire Safety Journal. 102, pp. 66-67.
Surface temperature generation during drop weight mechanical impact and the usefulness of dynamic thermocouple measurements for predicting impact ignition of flammable gases
Ingram, JM, Averill, AF, Holborn, PG, Battersby, P and Benson, CM (2018). Surface temperature generation during drop weight mechanical impact and the usefulness of dynamic thermocouple measurements for predicting impact ignition of flammable gases. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 55, pp. 10-18.
Chemochromic Pd-V2O5 Sensors for Passive Hydrogen Detection in Nuclear Containments
O'Hara, R, Holborn, PG, Ingram, JM, Ball, J, Rathbone, P and Edge, R (2018). Chemochromic Pd-V2O5 Sensors for Passive Hydrogen Detection in Nuclear Containments. 2018 WM Symposia, Nuclear and Industrial Robotics, Remote Systems and Other Emerging Technologies. Phoenix, Arizona, USA 18 - 22 Mar 2018 London South Bank University.
Application of Bayesian methods and networks to ignition hazard event prediction in nuclear waste decommissioning operations
Averill, AF, Ingram, JM, Holborn, PG, Battersby, P and Benson, CM (2018). Application of Bayesian methods and networks to ignition hazard event prediction in nuclear waste decommissioning operations. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 116, pp. 396-404.
Identification of ignition sources in high pressure enriched gaseous oxygen system incidents using flow chart road map diagram methodology
Benson, CM and Ingram, JM (2018). Identification of ignition sources in high pressure enriched gaseous oxygen system incidents using flow chart road map diagram methodology. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 114, pp. 206-218.
Potential hazard consequences to personnel exposed to the ignition of small volumes of weakly confined stoichiometric hydrogen/air mixture
Averill, A, Ingram, J, Gomez-Augustina, L, Holborn, P, Battersby, P and Benson, CM (2018). Potential hazard consequences to personnel exposed to the ignition of small volumes of weakly confined stoichiometric hydrogen/air mixture. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 43 (50), pp. 22733-22745.
An experimental and CFD study into the dispersion of buoyant gas using passive venting in a small fuel cell enclosure
Ghatauray, T, Ingram, JM and Holborn, PG (2016). An experimental and CFD study into the dispersion of buoyant gas using passive venting in a small fuel cell enclosure. IChemE Hazards 26. Edinburgh 24 - 26 May 2016 London South Bank University.
A comparison study into low leak rate buoyant gas dispersion in a small fuel cell enclosure using plain and louvre vent passive ventilation schemes.
Ghatauray, T, Ingram, JM and Holborn, PG (2017). A comparison study into low leak rate buoyant gas dispersion in a small fuel cell enclosure using plain and louvre vent passive ventilation schemes. HYSAFE: International Conference On Hydrogen Safety. Hamburg, Germany 11 - 13 Sep 2017 London South Bank University.
Ignition of flammable atmospheres by mechanical stimuli
Ingram, JM (2016). Ignition of flammable atmospheres by mechanical stimuli. hazardex: Journal for Hazardous Area Environment.
Characterising the performance of hydrogen sensitive coatings for nuclear safety applications
O'Hara, R, Ingram, JM, Holborn, PG, Ball, J, Edge, R and Rathbone, P (2017). Characterising the performance of hydrogen sensitive coatings for nuclear safety applications. International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS 2017). Hamburg, Germany 11 - 13 Sep 2017 London South Bank University.
Energy losses during drop weight mechanical impacts with special reference to ignition of flammable atmospheres in nuclear decommissioning: theory and determination of experimental coefficients for impact analysis and prediction
Averill, AF, Ingram, JM, Holborn, PG and Battersby, P (2017). Energy losses during drop weight mechanical impacts with special reference to ignition of flammable atmospheres in nuclear decommissioning: theory and determination of experimental coefficients for impact analysis and prediction. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 109, pp. 92-103.
Fire suppression systems in aircraft: Their past, present & future
Benson, CM, Fernandez-Cerezo, G, Holborn, PG and Mba, D (2016). Fire suppression systems in aircraft: Their past, present & future. Fire Investigation. 1 (3), pp. 34-41.
Domestic Refrigerator Design -Safety Issues and Opportunities
Beasley, M, Holborn, PG, Ingram, JM and Maidment, GG (2017). Domestic Refrigerator Design -Safety Issues and Opportunities. The Institute of Refrigeration Event 2nd March 2017. London South Bank University 02 - 02 Mar 2017 London South Bank University.
The development of a model for the prediction of polymer spontaneous ignition temperatures in high pressure enriched oxygen across a range of pressures and concentrations
Benson, CM, Bishop, AM, Ingram, JM, Phillips, R and Nolan, PF (2016). The development of a model for the prediction of polymer spontaneous ignition temperatures in high pressure enriched oxygen across a range of pressures and concentrations. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 44 (Nov), pp. 369-379.
Challenges for the development of EFFICIENT - An Environmentally Friendly Fire Suppression System for Cargo using Innovative Green Technology
Fernandez-Cerezo, G, Benson, CM, Holborn, PG and Mba, D (2016). Challenges for the development of EFFICIENT - An Environmentally Friendly Fire Suppression System for Cargo using Innovative Green Technology. Institute of Fire Engineers RE16. Birmingham Nov 2016 London South Bank University.