Development and validation of a scale to measure social isolation in adolescents

Journal article


Santos, S. J., Cunha Soares, F., Gaoua, N., Rangel Junior, J., Antunes Lima, R. and Virgilio Gomes de Barros, M. (2024). Development and validation of a scale to measure social isolation in adolescents. Journal of research on adolescence . https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12952
AuthorsSantos, S. J., Cunha Soares, F., Gaoua, N., Rangel Junior, J., Antunes Lima, R. and Virgilio Gomes de Barros, M.
Abstract

Background: There is a lack of questionnaires specifically designed to assess social isolation in adolescents. We developed and validated a self-report measure of social isolation in adolescents, the Social Isolation Questionnaire (QIS).

Methods: A literature review on social isolation and mental health in adolescents indicated 20 questions to form QIS. Two cross-sectional surveys with 48 and 1,135 adolescents, respectively, evaluated the reproducibility and validity of QIS.

Results: The Bland-Altman plot did not indicate a systematic difference between measurements 15 days apart. Bartlett’s sphericity test verified a correlation between the questions and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test showed good adequacy (0.896) to the factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis suggested the exclusion of three questions (loading factors <0.3), and eigenvalues (4.9 to 0.8) indicated that the questionnaire should be composed of three factors (dimensions). The Cronbach’s alpha indicated high internal consistency of the 17 questions (0.850 overall; Dimensions: 0.815 ‘feeling of loneliness’; 0.760 ‘friendship’; and, 0.680 ‘Family support’). The QIS score ranged from 0 to 131 (maximum social isolation score). Correlation between QIS and depressive symptoms (r=0.543) indicated the construct validity of QIS.

Limitations: We evaluated QIS in the Portuguese version, thus translation and cultural adaptation are necessary to evaluate the questionnaire in other settings.

Conclusions: We constructed and validated the QIS questionnaire, a self-administered questionnaire to assess social isolation in adolescents, composed of three dimensions; feeling of loneliness, friendship and family support. The QIS questionnaire seems a very promising tool to support practitioners and researchers in assessing social isolation among adolescents.

KeywordsQuestionnaire; Validation; Social isolation; Adolescent.
Year2024
JournalJournal of research on adolescence
PublisherWiley
ISSN1532-7795
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12952
Publication dates
Print29 Apr 2024
Publication process dates
Accepted12 Apr 2024
Deposited02 May 2024
Accepted author manuscript
License
File Access Level
Open
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/971qx

Download files


Accepted author manuscript
Manuscript_accepted.docx
License: CC BY 4.0
File access level: Open

  • 19
    total views
  • 9
    total downloads
  • 13
    views this month
  • 5
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Editorial: How do extreme environments influence psychological functioning for performance?
Coudevylle, G.R., Gaoua, N., Mündel, T. and Cheung, S.S. (2023). Editorial: How do extreme environments influence psychological functioning for performance? Frontiers in Psychology. 13, p. 1094998. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1094998
The Type of Per-Cooling Strategies Currently Employed by Competitive and Professional Cyclists-Triathletes During Training and Competition Are Condition (Dry vs. Humid) Dependant
Bayne, F., Racinais, S., Mileva, K.N., Hunter, S. and Gaoua, N. (2022). The Type of Per-Cooling Strategies Currently Employed by Competitive and Professional Cyclists-Triathletes During Training and Competition Are Condition (Dry vs. Humid) Dependant. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living. 4, p. 845427. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2022.845427
Integrated multi-omics of the gut microbiome: assessing the beneficial effects of fermented foods to human health
Bester, A., Toribio-Mateas, M., Mileva, K. and Gaoua, N. (2022). Integrated multi-omics of the gut microbiome: assessing the beneficial effects of fermented foods to human health. Exploring Human Host-Microbiome Interactions in Health and Disease. Hinxton, Cambridge 05 - 07 Dec 2018 Wellcome Connecting Science Courses and Conferences. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.10244.58246
Accuracy of peak nasal flow to determine nasal obstruction in patients with allergic rhinitis.
de Oliveira, G.M.M., Correia Júnior, M. A.de V., Costa, E.C., Lira, G. V. de A. G., Rizzo, J. Â., Hunter, S., Gaoua, N. and Sarinho, E.S. C. (2022). Accuracy of peak nasal flow to determine nasal obstruction in patients with allergic rhinitis. Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale. 42 (2), pp. 155-161. https://doi.org/10.14639/0392-100X-N1617
Ventilation rates achieved in eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction diagnosis in young patients with asthma
Rizzo, J.A., de Barros Albuquerque, L.C.B, Medeiros, D., de Albuquerque C.G, Filho, E.A.R, de Moura Santos M.A, Hunter, S., Gaoua, N. and de Valois Correia Jr, M.A. (2022). Ventilation rates achieved in eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction diagnosis in young patients with asthma. Lung. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00408-022-00519-0
Effects of living and working in a hot environment on cognitive function in a quiet and temperature-controlled room: An oil and gas industry study
Girard, O., Gaoua, Nadia, Grantham, Justin, Knez, Wade, Walsh, Andrew and Racinais, S. (2021). Effects of living and working in a hot environment on cognitive function in a quiet and temperature-controlled room: An oil and gas industry study. Temperature. 8 (4), pp. 372-380. https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2021.1959289
What makes young people get involved with street gangs in London? A study of the perceived risk factors
Annan, L., Gaoua, N., Mileva, K. and Borges, M. (2021). What makes young people get involved with street gangs in London? A study of the perceived risk factors. Journal of Community Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22767
Acute psycho-physiological responses to perceptually regulated hypoxic and normoxic interval walks in overweight-to-obese adults
Hobbins, L., Girard, O., Gaoua, N. and Hunter, S. (2021). Acute psycho-physiological responses to perceptually regulated hypoxic and normoxic interval walks in overweight-to-obese adults. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 24 (5), pp. 481-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.11.011
Short-Term Perceptually Regulated Interval-Walk Training in Hypoxia and Normoxia in Overweight-to-Obese Adults.
Hobbins, L., Hunter, S., Gaoua, N. and Girard, O. (2021). Short-Term Perceptually Regulated Interval-Walk Training in Hypoxia and Normoxia in Overweight-to-Obese Adults. Journal of sports science & medicine. 20 (1), pp. 45-51. https://doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2021.45
Less Is More—Cyclists-Triathlete’s 30 min Cycling Time-Trial Performance Is Impaired With Multiple Feedback Compared to a Single Feedback
Bayne, F., Racinais, Sebastien, Mileva, Katya, Hunter, Steve and Gaoua, Nadia (2020). Less Is More—Cyclists-Triathlete’s 30 min Cycling Time-Trial Performance Is Impaired With Multiple Feedback Compared to a Single Feedback. Frontiers in Psychology. 11, p. 608426. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.608426
Sleep and psychological factors are associated with meeting discharge criteria to return to sport following ACL reconstruction in athletes
Khalladi, K, Abdulaziz, Fa, Sas, B, Chtourou, H, Bouras, R, Racinais, S, Souissi, S, Gaoua, N, Chamari, K and El Massioui, F (2020). Sleep and psychological factors are associated with meeting discharge criteria to return to sport following ACL reconstruction in athletes. Biology of Sport. 38 (3), pp. 305-313. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2021.99704
Running mechanics adjustments to perceptually-regulated interval runs in hypoxia and normoxia
Li, S.N., Hobbins, L., Morin, J-B., Ryu, J.H., Gaoua, N., Hunter, S. and Girard, O. (2020). Running mechanics adjustments to perceptually-regulated interval runs in hypoxia and normoxia. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 23 (11), pp. 1111-1116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2020.04.001
Acute Psychophysiological Responses to Cyclic Variation of Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure in Adults with Obesity
Hobbins, L, Girard, O, Gaoua, N and Hunter, S (2019). Acute Psychophysiological Responses to Cyclic Variation of Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure in Adults with Obesity. High Altitude Medicine and Biology. https://doi.org/10.1089/ham.2019.0002
Psycho-physiological responses to perceptually-regulated interval runs in hypoxia and normoxia
Hobbins, L, Gaoua, N, Hunter, S and Girard, O (2019). Psycho-physiological responses to perceptually-regulated interval runs in hypoxia and normoxia. Physiology and Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112611
Effect of passive hyperthermia on working memory resources during simple and complex cognitive tasks
Gaoua, N, Herrera, CP, Periard, JD, El massioui, F and Racinais, S (2018). Effect of passive hyperthermia on working memory resources during simple and complex cognitive tasks. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02290
The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women
Farooq, A, Gibson, A-M, Reilly, J and Gaoua, N (2018). The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women. Journal of Obesity. p. 1741962. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1741962
Effect of Cold on Proprioception and Cognitive Function in Elite Alpine Skiers
Gaoua, N (2017). Effect of Cold on Proprioception and Cognitive Function in Elite Alpine Skiers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12 (1), pp. 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0002
Normobaric hypoxic conditioning to maximise weight-loss and ameliorate cardio-metabolic health in obese populations: A systematic review.
Hobbins, L, Hunter, S, Gaoua, N and Girard, O (2017). Normobaric hypoxic conditioning to maximise weight-loss and ameliorate cardio-metabolic health in obese populations: A systematic review. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology. 313 (3), pp. R251-R264. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00160.2017
Heat acclimation has a protective effect on the central but not peripheral nervous system
Racinais, S, Wilson, MG, Gaoua, N and Periard, JP (2017). Heat acclimation has a protective effect on the central but not peripheral nervous system. Journal of Applied Physiology. 123 (4), pp. 816-824. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00430.2017
Perception, action and cognition of football referees in extreme temperatures: Impact on decision performance
Gaoua, N, de Oliveira, RF and Hunter, S (2017). Perception, action and cognition of football referees in extreme temperatures: Impact on decision performance. Frontiers in Psychology. 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01479