Implementation and perceived impact of the SWAN model of end-of-life and bereavement care: a realist evaluation

Journal article


Stewart-Lord, A., Baillie, L., Green, L., Murphy, F. and Alison Leary (2022). Implementation and perceived impact of the SWAN model of end-of-life and bereavement care: a realist evaluation. BMJ Open. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-066832
AuthorsStewart-Lord, A., Baillie, L., Green, L., Murphy, F. and Alison Leary
Abstract

Objectives To evaluate the End-of-Life and Bereavement Care model (SWAN) from conception to current use.

Design A realist evaluation was conducted to understand what works for whom and in what circumstances. The programme theory, derived from a scoping review, comprised: person and family centred care, institutional approaches and infrastructure. Data were collected across three stages (May 2021 to December 2021): semi-structured, online interviews and analysis of routinely collected local and national data.

Setting Stage 1: Greater Manchester area of England where the SWAN model was developed and implemented. Stage 2: Midlands. Stage 3: National data.

Participants Twenty-three participants were interviewed: Trust SWAN leads, end-of-life care nurses, board members, bereavement services, faith leadership, quality improvement, medicine, nursing, patient transport, mortuary, police and coroners.

Results Results from all three stages were integrated within themes, linked to the mechanisms, context and outcomes for the SWAN model. The mechanisms are: SWAN is a values-based model, promoting person/family-centred care and emphasising personhood after death. Key features are: memory-making, normalisation of death and ‘one chance’ to get things right. SWAN is an enablement and empowerment model for all involved. The branding is recognisable and raises the profile of end-of-life and bereavement care. The contextual factors for successful implementation and sustainability include leadership, organisational support, teamwork and integrated working, education and engagement and investment in resources and facilities. The outcomes are perceived to be: a consistent approach to end-of-life and bereavement care; a person/family-centred approach to care; empowered and creative staff; an organisational culture that prioritises end-of-life and bereavement care.

Conclusion The SWAN model is agile and has transferred to different settings and circumstances. This realist evaluation revealed the mechanisms of the SWAN model, the contextual factors supporting implementation and perceived outcomes for patients, families, staff and the organisation.

Year2022
JournalBMJ Open
PublisherBMJ
ISSN2044-6055
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-066832
Web address (URL)https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-066832
Publication dates
Online20 Dec 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted20 Nov 2022
Deposited03 Jan 2023
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