Three-phase phase-locked loop synchronization algorithms for grid-connected renewable energy systems: A review

Journal article


Ali, Z., Christofides, N., Hadjidemetriou, L., Kyriakides, E., Yang, Y. and Blaabjerg, F. (2018). Three-phase phase-locked loop synchronization algorithms for grid-connected renewable energy systems: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 90, pp. 434-452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.086
AuthorsAli, Z., Christofides, N., Hadjidemetriou, L., Kyriakides, E., Yang, Y. and Blaabjerg, F.
Abstract

The increasing penetration of distributed renewable energy sources (RES) requires appropriate control techniques in order to remain interconnected and contribute in a proper way to the overall grid stability, whenever disturbances occur. In addition, the disconnection of RES due to synchronization problems must be avoided as this may result in penalties and loss of energy generation to RES operators. The control of RES mainly depends on the synchronization algorithm, which should be fast and accurately detect the grid voltage status (e.g., phase, amplitude, and frequency). Typically, phase-locked loop (PLL) synchronization techniques are used for the grid voltage monitoring. The design and performance of PLL directly affect the dynamics of the RES grid side converter (GSC). This paper presents the characteristics, design guidelines and features of advanced state-of-the-art PLL-based synchronization algorithms under normal, abnormal and harmonically-distorted grid conditions. Experimental tests on the selected PLL methods under different grid conditions are presented, followed by a comparative benchmarking and selection guide. Finally, corresponding PLL tuning procedures are discussed.

KeywordsRenewable energy sources (RES), Grid side converters (GSC), Synchronization, Phase-locked loop (PLL), Harmonic distortion, Unbalanced grid conditions, Power converter control, Grid codes
Year2018
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Journal citation90, pp. 434-452
PublisherElsevier
ISSN1879-0690
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.086
Web address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032118301813
Publication dates
Print04 Apr 2018
Publication process dates
Accepted26 Mar 2018
Deposited08 Sep 2023
Accepted author manuscript
License
File Access Level
Open
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