Training Regimes and Recovery Monitoring Practices of Elite British Swimmers

Journal article


Pollock, S., Gaoua, N., Johnston, M., Cooke, K., Girard, O. and Mileva, K. (2019). Training Regimes and Recovery Monitoring Practices of Elite British Swimmers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 18, pp. 577-585.
AuthorsPollock, S., Gaoua, N., Johnston, M., Cooke, K., Girard, O. and Mileva, K.
Abstract

Consistent prescriptions for event-specific training of swimmers are lacking, which points to likely differences in training practices and a potential gap between practice and scientific knowledge. This study aimed to analyze the distance-specific training load of elite swimmers, derive a consistent training sessions’ description and reflect on the current recommendations for training and recovery.
The individual training regimes of 18 elite British swimmers
were documented by surveying four swim and two strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches. The annual and weekly training
load and content were compared between swimmers competing
in sprint, middle and long-distance events. Thematic analysis of the surveys was conducted to identify key codes and general dimensions and to define a unified classification of the swimming and S&C training sessions. Weekly training loads and content of the swim (ƞ2 - effect size; p = 0.016, ƞ2 = 0.423) and S&C (p = 0.028, ƞ2 = 0.38) sessions significantly differed between the groups. Long-distance swimmers swam significantly longer distances (mean ± SD; 58.1 ± 10.2 km vs. 43.2 ± 5.3 km; p = 0.018) weekly but completed similar number of S&C sessions compared to sprinters. The annual swimming load distribution of middledistance specialists did not differ from that of long-distance swimmers but consisted of more S&C sessions per week (4.7 ± 0.5 vs. 2.3 ± 2.3; p = 0.04). Sprinters and middle-distance swimmers swam similar distances per week and completed similar number of S&C sessions but with different proportional content. Whereas all coaches reported monitoring fatigue, only 51% indicated
implementing individualized recovery protocols. We propose
a consistent terminology for the description of training sessions in elite swimming to facilitate good practice exchanges. While the training prescription of elite British swimmers conforms to the scientific training principles, recommendations for recovery protocols to reduce the risk of injury and overtraining are warranted.

Year2019
JournalJournal of Sports Science and Medicine
Journal citation18, pp. 577-585
Web address (URL)https://www.jssm.org/jssm-18-577.xml%3EFulltext
Publication dates
Online01 Aug 2019
Publication process dates
Accepted01 Jul 2019
Deposited06 Sep 2019
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/87zqy

Download files


Publisher's version
Pollock et al 2019 swimming survey.pdf
License: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
File access level: Open

  • 59
    total views
  • 12
    total downloads
  • 3
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Contractile behavior of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle during running in simulated hypogravity
Richter, C., Braunstein, B., Staeudle, B., Attias, J., Suess, A., Weber, T., Mileva, K., Rittweger, J., Green, D.A. and Albracht, K. (2021). Contractile behavior of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle during running in simulated hypogravity. npj Microgravity. 7 (32), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41526-021-00155-7
This Girl Can, can't she? Perspectives from exercise providers and participants on what factors influence participation  
Hull, R., Zaidell, L., Mileva, K. and De Oliveira, R. (2021). This Girl Can, can't she? Perspectives from exercise providers and participants on what factors influence participation  . Psychology of Sport and Exercise.
Gastrocnemius Medialis Contractile Behavior Is Preserved During 30% Body Weight Supported Gait Training
Richter, C., Braunstein, B., Staeudle, B., Attias, J., Suess, A., Weber, T., Mileva, K.N., Rittweger, J., Green, D.A. and Albracht, K. (2021). Gastrocnemius Medialis Contractile Behavior Is Preserved During 30% Body Weight Supported Gait Training. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living. 2. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.614559
Less Is More-Cyclists-Triathlete's 30 min Cycling Time-Trial Performance Is Impaired With Multiple Feedback Compared to a Single Feedback.
Bayne, F., Racinais, S., Mileva, K., Hunter, S. and Gaoua, N. (2020). Less Is More-Cyclists-Triathlete's 30 min Cycling Time-Trial Performance Is Impaired With Multiple Feedback Compared to a Single Feedback. Frontiers in Psychology. 11, p. 608426. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.608426
Supraspinal Responses and Spinal Reflexes
Mileva, K and Ritzmann, R (2020). Supraspinal Responses and Spinal Reflexes. in: Rittweger, J (ed.) Manual of Vibration Exercise and Vibration Therapy Cham, Switzerland Springer Nature. pp. 121-133
Direct muscle electrical stimulation as a method for the in vivo assessment of force production in m. abductor hallucis
Olivera, A.L.P., Alzapiedi, D.F., Solan, M.C., Karamanidis, K., Mileva, K. and James, D.C. (2020). Direct muscle electrical stimulation as a method for the in vivo assessment of force production in m. abductor hallucis. Journal of Biomechanics. 100, p. 109606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109606
Correction to: Effect of Immobilisation on Neuromuscular Function In Vivo in Humans: A Systematic Review
Campbell, M, Varley-Campbell, J, Fulford, J, Taylor, B, Mileva, KN and Bowtell, JL (2019). Correction to: Effect of Immobilisation on Neuromuscular Function In Vivo in Humans: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine. 49 (6), pp. 981-986. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01100-1
Lower body acceleration and muscular responses to rotational and vertical whole-body vibration of different frequencies and amplitudes
Mileva, K., Zaidell, L, James, DC, Bowtell, J, Pollock, RD, Newham, DJ and Sumners, DP (2019). Lower body acceleration and muscular responses to rotational and vertical whole-body vibration of different frequencies and amplitudes. Dose-Response. 17 (1). https://doi.org/10.1177/1559325818819946
Effect of Immobilisation on Neuromuscular Function In Vivoin Humans: A Systematic Review
Campbell, M, Varley-Campbell, J, Fulford, J, Taylor, B, Mileva, K. and Bowtell, J (2019). Effect of Immobilisation on Neuromuscular Function In Vivoin Humans: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01088-8
Improved Exercise Tolerance with Caffeine Is Associated with Modulation of both Peripheral and Central Neural Processes in Human Participants.
Bowtell, JL, Mohr, M, Fulford, J, Jackman, SR, Ermidis, G, Krustrup, P and Mileva, K. (2018). Improved Exercise Tolerance with Caffeine Is Associated with Modulation of both Peripheral and Central Neural Processes in Human Participants. Frontiers in Nutrition. 5, p. 6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2018.00006
Wide-pulse, high-frequency, low-intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation has potential for targeted strengthening of an intrinsic foot muscle: a feasibility study
James, DC, Solan, MC and Mileva, K. (2018). Wide-pulse, high-frequency, low-intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation has potential for targeted strengthening of an intrinsic foot muscle: a feasibility study. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13047-018-0258-1
Selected B vitamins and their possible link to the aetiology of age-related sarcopenia: relevance of UK dietary recommendations.
Aytekin, N, Mileva, K. and Cunliffe, AD (2018). Selected B vitamins and their possible link to the aetiology of age-related sarcopenia: relevance of UK dietary recommendations. Nutrition Research Reviews. 31 (2), pp. 104-224. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422418000045
Muscle metabolic and neuromuscular determinants of fatigue during cycling in different exercise intensity domains.
Black, MI, Jones, AM, Blackwell, JR, Bailey, SJ, Wylie, LJ, McDonagh, STJ, Thompson, C, Kelly, J, Sumners, P, Mileva, K., Bowtell, JL and Vanhatalo, A (2017). Muscle metabolic and neuromuscular determinants of fatigue during cycling in different exercise intensity domains. Journal of Applied Physicology (1985). 122 (3), pp. 446-459. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00942.2016
The biomechanical characteristics of wearing FitFlop™ sandals highlight significant alterations in gait pattern: a comparative study.
James, DC, Farmer, LJ, Sayers, JB, Cook, DP and Mileva, K. (2015). The biomechanical characteristics of wearing FitFlop™ sandals highlight significant alterations in gait pattern: a comparative study. Clinical Biomechanics. 30 (4), pp. 347-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.02.016
47 An acute session of high-frequency, low-intensity, wide-pulse electrical stimulation evokes fatigue adaptations in an intrinsic foot muscle
James, DC, Mileva, K. and Solan, MC (2015). 47 An acute session of high-frequency, low-intensity, wide-pulse electrical stimulation evokes fatigue adaptations in an intrinsic foot muscle. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 49 (Suppl). https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095573.47
Low-frequency accelerations over-estimate impact-related shock during walking.
James, DC, Mileva, K. and Cook, DP (2014). Low-frequency accelerations over-estimate impact-related shock during walking. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 24 (2), pp. 264-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.12.008
Effect of Hypohydration on Peripheral and Corticospinal Excitability and Voluntary Activation
Bowtell, JL, Avenell, G, Hunter, SP and Mileva, K. (2013). Effect of Hypohydration on Peripheral and Corticospinal Excitability and Voluntary Activation. PLoS ONE. 8 (10), p. e77004. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077004
Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia
Cooke, K, Galvin, HM, Sumners, DP, Mileva, K. and Bowtell, JL (2013). Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 47, pp. i74-i79. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092826
Wide-pulse electrical stimulation to an intrinsic foot muscle induces acute functional changes in forefoot-rearfoot coupling behaviour during walking.
James, DC, Chesters, T, Sumners, DP, Cook, DP, Green, DA and Mileva, K. (2012). Wide-pulse electrical stimulation to an intrinsic foot muscle induces acute functional changes in forefoot-rearfoot coupling behaviour during walking. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 34 (5), pp. 438-443. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1321893