Le défi des gangs de jeunes : enjeux et interventions dans le contexte britannique et canadien

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Miller, E. and Whittaker, A. (2022). Le défi des gangs de jeunes : enjeux et interventions dans le contexte britannique et canadien. Montreal, Canada University of Montréal Press.
AuthorsMiller, E. and Whittaker, A.
Abstract

Au Royaume-Uni, une vive controverse règne quant à l’existence des gangs de rue. Il y a un peu plus de 10 ans, John Pitts (2007, 2008) a publié la première d’une série d’études (Densley, 2013 ; Deuchar 2009 ; Harding, 2014 ; McLean, 2019) qui a suscité un élan d’intérêt pour la nature même de ces groupes au Royaume-Uni (Andell, 2019). Les premiers débats visaient à savoir si les gangs sont une construction sociale fondée sur une représentation médiatique négative des jeunes, en particulier des jeunes Noirs (Hallsworth, 2013 ; Hallsworth et Young, 2008), ou s’ils constituent plutôt une réponse à la pauvreté et aux désavantages structurels qui sévissent dans les quartiers défavorisés (Pitts, 2008, 2012, 2016). L’analyse formulée dans le présent chapitre repose sur le concept de prophétie autoréalisatrice élaboré par Robert K. Merton (1948). On y préconise l’élargissement du cadre d’analyse applicable au phénomène des gangs de jeunes en tant qu’entité évolutive, plus particulièrement l’élargissement des discours entourant la façon dont on conçoit le passage des gangs d’une action expressive à une action instrumentale (Whittaker et coll., 2020). Nous y soutenons que l’évolution du phénomène de gang dans les représentations et les conceptions occidentales contemporaines incarne bien le concept de prophétie autoréalisatrice (Merton, 1948), dans l’acception que lui confèrent les chercheurs, à savoir la façon dont ce qui est fictif devient réalité.

KeywordsGangs, Youth, Race, England, Canada, Self-fulfilling Prophecy, Policy
Year2022
PublisherUniversity of Montréal Press
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File Access Level
Open
Publication dates
Print31 Mar 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted01 Dec 2021
Deposited10 Jan 2022
Place of publicationMontreal, Canada
EditionFirst
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