Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Journal article


Liégeois, F. and Elward, R. (2020). Functional magnetic resonance imaging. Handbook of clinical neurology. 174, pp. 265-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64148-9.00019-3
AuthorsLiégeois, F. and Elward, R.
AbstractAmong the range of methods available to assess neurodevelopmental disorders, functional MRI (fMRI) has been a preferred tool of choice. Indeed, fMRI can reveal functional alterations in brain networks, irrespective of their structural integrity. Yet, whether fMRI studies have provided unique added value and influenced the clinical care and assessments in children with these conditions remains controversial. This chapter aims to give an overview of the clinical use of task-based as well as resting-state fMRI in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as dyslexia, DLD, and epilepsy. We introduce analysis methods that appear promising (namely PPI and machine learning) and describe strengths and limitations of fMRI in the field of pediatrics. Altogether, we suggest that fMRI has provided us with a unique understanding of some developmental conditions. Indeed, findings from group studies have both informed neuroanatomical models and revealed compensation mechanisms. In addition, improvements have made fMRI an increasingly child-friendly method. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of limitations, including (1) lack of replication of results, (2) the limited specificity as a diagnostic tool, and (3) difficulties with interpretation of findings. The use of fMRI in the clinic currently remains restricted, with the exception of epilepsy surgery planning, where it is used routinely. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]
KeywordsChildren; Dyslexia; Epilepsy; Functional MRI; Language disorders; Multivoxel pattern analysis; Psychophysiological interactions; Resting-state fMRI
Year2020
JournalHandbook of clinical neurology
Journal citation174, pp. 265-275
PublisherElsevier
ISSN0072-9752
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-64148-9.00019-3
Publication dates
Online22 Sep 2020
Publication process dates
Deposited20 Jul 2021
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Publisher does not allow the chapter to be shared

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