A review of the evidence linking Zika virus to the developmental abnormalities that lead to microcephaly in view of recent cases of birth defects in Africa

Journal article


Icheku, V (2016). A review of the evidence linking Zika virus to the developmental abnormalities that lead to microcephaly in view of recent cases of birth defects in Africa. Journal of MPE Molecular Pathological Epidemiology. 1 (1), pp. 1-4.
AuthorsIcheku, V
Abstract

The World Health Organization (WHO) in May 2016 confirmed an outbreak of the Zika virus on the African island chain of Cape Verde, linking it to cases of the brain disease, microcephaly. This finding is of concern because Zika was first discovered in East Africa in 1947 with no known link to brain or birth disorders until the WHO reported findings. The question, therefore, is: if the Zika virus has been in Africa for 69 years, why wasn’t any association to microcephaly detected before the recent WHO findings in Brazil (see below) and Cape Verde? This study reviews the evidence linking Zika to microcephaly in view of recent cases of birth defects in Africa, with the aim of providing vital clues as to why there was no documented case of such birth defects in Africa, where the Zika virus originated. The literature for this review was gathered through internet searches, including the websites of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) and Public Health England (PHE). Materials from these sources were reviewed on the link between the Zika virus and microcephaly in relation to the recent cases of birth defects in Africa. Two possible explanations emerged from the review. The first explanation suggests that the phenomenon called herd immunity may have taken place in Africa. The Zika virus cannot infect the same person twice because it reaches a stage where there are too few people left to be infected for transmission to be sustained. The second explanation suggests that microcephaly linked to birth defects is caused by other conditions. In conclusion, the findings of this review opens up the debate on the connection between the Zika virus and the birth defect attributed to mosquito-borne microcephaly, given that there is no documented case of birth defect in Africa 69 years after the discovery of the Zika virus. Large-scale research is recommended on the Zika virus and pregnancy in Africa for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the virus in the continent.

Year2016
JournalJournal of MPE Molecular Pathological Epidemiology
Journal citation1 (1), pp. 1-4
PublisheriMedPub
Web address (URL)http://molecular-pathological-epidemiology.imedpub.com/a-review-of-the-evidence-linking-zika-virus-to-the-developmental-abnormalities-that-lead-to-microcephaly-in-view-of-recent-cases-o.php?aid=17457
Publication dates
Print28 Oct 2016
Publication process dates
Deposited12 Jan 2017
Accepted25 Oct 2016
Publisher's version
License
CC BY 4.0
Publisher's version
License
CC BY 4.0
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/871w9

  • 0
    total views
  • 2
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month

Related outputs

Integration of Evidence from a Systematic Review into Practice involving the care of adolescent males exposed to domestic violence
Icheku, V and Graham, R (2018). Integration of Evidence from a Systematic Review into Practice involving the care of adolescent males exposed to domestic violence. London SG Williams Publishing UK Co Limited.
A descriptive cross-sectional study on various uses and outcomes of Garcinia Kola among people of Oshimili North in the Delta State of Nigeria
Icheku, V, Onianwah, IF and Nwulia, A (2019). A descriptive cross-sectional study on various uses and outcomes of Garcinia Kola among people of Oshimili North in the Delta State of Nigeria. AYU. 39 (3), pp. 132-138.
Service Users’ Involvement in Interprofessional Learning and Higher Overall Pass Rate.
Icheku, V (2018). Service Users’ Involvement in Interprofessional Learning and Higher Overall Pass Rate. 2nd Global Nursing and Healthcare Conference. London UK 13 - 15 Aug 2018
Evidence based interventions to improve fostering relationships
Icheku, V and Paris, C (2018). Evidence based interventions to improve fostering relationships. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
Comparative cross-sectional quantitative study of health status among consumers of bitter kola in Igbuzor community living in Oshilmili North Local Government area of Delta state.
Icheku, V, Onianwah, IF and Nwulia, A (2018). Comparative cross-sectional quantitative study of health status among consumers of bitter kola in Igbuzor community living in Oshilmili North Local Government area of Delta state. Universal Journal of Food and Nutrition Science. 6 (1), pp. 28-40.
Impact of hiv related stigma and discrimination on working women in sub-sahara africa
Icheku, V (2015). Impact of hiv related stigma and discrimination on working women in sub-sahara africa. in: Connerley, M and Wu, J (ed.) Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women Springer. pp. 781-803
A new report that may provide clue as to why for 70 years there was no documented cases of birth defect in Africa where Zika virus originated
Icheku, V (2017). A new report that may provide clue as to why for 70 years there was no documented cases of birth defect in Africa where Zika virus originated. 3rd International Conference on Influenza and Zoonotic Diseases. Birmingham, UK 21 - 22 Aug 2017 London South Bank University.
Zika Virus and Microcephaly
Icheku, V (2017). Zika Virus and Microcephaly. Smart Technology to Fight Zika virus Epidemic. Recife, Brazil 10 - 13 Sep 2017 London South Bank University.
Is Zika virus the definitive culprit in cases of Microcephaly?
Icheku, V (2017). Is Zika virus the definitive culprit in cases of Microcephaly? Germany Lambert Academic Publishing.
What interventions work to improve relationships between birth parents and children in foster care?
Icheku, V and Paris, C (2017). What interventions work to improve relationships between birth parents and children in foster care? International Journal of Current Research. 9.
What Social Impact Does Exposure to Domestic Violence Have on Adolescent Males? A Systemic Review of Literature
Icheku, V and Graham, R (2017). What Social Impact Does Exposure to Domestic Violence Have on Adolescent Males? A Systemic Review of Literature. Journal of Healthcare Communications. 2 (1).
Exploration of Zika virus travel-related transmission and a review of travel advice to minimise health risk to UK travellers
Icheku, V and Icheku, C (2016). Exploration of Zika virus travel-related transmission and a review of travel advice to minimise health risk to UK travellers. Universal Journal of Public health. 4 (4), pp. 203-211.