Are the key welfare models effective for exotic pet animals?

Journal article


Grant, R., Jessop, M., Steedman, C. and Warwick, C. Are the key welfare models effective for exotic pet animals? Frontiers in Animal Science.
AuthorsGrant, R., Jessop, M., Steedman, C. and Warwick, C.
Abstract

The Five Freedoms, Five Domains, Five Welfare Needs, and other similar models or principles, are key aspirational or outcome-led frameworks aimed at safeguarding animals under human custodianship, and are widely used in legislation, guidance documents, and protocols. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of these animal welfare models as intended protections. Our study considered three informational tiers of relevance for guidance: Tier 1, key welfare models and principles governing legislation; Tier 2, formal secondary guidance; and Tier 3, welfare outcomes. We conducted a literature review of key welfare models, as well as reports of persistent animal welfare problems associated with exotic pets, and collated available examples of relevant legislation and their implementation. Of the 91 studied regions that adopted animal welfare models, the following were directly or closely aligned with: Five Freedoms n = 64, Five Welfare Needs n = 26, Five Domains n = 1. We identified the following numbers of welfare concerns for animals kept in trade and private home situations: invertebrates n = 21, fishes n = 27, amphibians n = 26, reptiles n = 43, birds n = 22, mammals n = 43. Despite the frequent adoption of one or other model or principle, animal welfare concerns and problems were regularly identified in relation to both commercial and home environments across all animal classes. We recommend that animal welfare is assigned priority over traditional pet selling or keeping practices through the adoption of modernised animal welfare models, underpinned by evolving scientific knowledge and precautionary principles, that aim to promote animal-centric preferred life quality.

KeywordsFive Freedoms, Five Domains, Five Welfare Needs, exotic pet, companion animal, wild animal, animal welfare
JournalFrontiers in Animal Science
Publication dates
OnlineJul 2024
Publication process dates
Deposited04 Jul 2024
Accepted author manuscript
License
File Access Level
Open
Permalink -

https://openresearch.lsbu.ac.uk/item/978y3

Restricted files

Accepted author manuscript

  • 7
    total views
  • 1
    total downloads
  • 7
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Reptile expos: an analysis and recommendations for control.
Warwick, C., Steedman, C., Jessop, M and Grant, R. Reptile expos: an analysis and recommendations for control. Frontiers in Animal Science. 5 (1335982.). https://doi.org/10.3389/fanim.2024.1335982
Eyespots: supernatural or supernormal? A case study from Papua New Guinea
Grant, R. and Montrose, V.T. (2023). Eyespots: supernatural or supernormal? A case study from Papua New Guinea . Culture and Evolution.
The Influence of Geochemical Characteristics and Geological Formations on Mammal Density and Distribution: A Case Study from Gorny Altai, Russia
Shitov, A, Karenin, A and Grant, R. (2023). The Influence of Geochemical Characteristics and Geological Formations on Mammal Density and Distribution: A Case Study from Gorny Altai, Russia. in: Jenkins, O.P. (ed.) Advances in Animal Science and Zoology. Volume 21 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.. pp. Chapter 3
One health implications of fur farming
Warwick, C., Pilney, A., Steedman, C. and Grant, R. (2023). One health implications of fur farming. Frontiers in Animal Science. 4 (2023), p. 1249901.. https://doi.org/10.3389/fanim.2023.1249901
Elephant tourism: An analysis and recommendations for public health, safety, and animal welfare
Grant, R., Warwick, C., Steedman, C. and Pilney, A. (2023). Elephant tourism: An analysis and recommendations for public health, safety, and animal welfare. International Journal of One Health. 9 (2). https://doi.org/10.14202/IJOH.2023.49-66
Mammal abundance varies with geochemical specialisation in the underlying rock formations.
Grant, R. (2023). Mammal abundance varies with geochemical specialisation in the underlying rock formations. European Geoscience Union 2023. Vienna 23 - 28 Apr 2023 https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu23-5813,2023.
Defining Short-Term Accommodation for Animals
Warwick, C., Steedman, C., Jessop, M. and Grant, R. (2023). Defining Short-Term Accommodation for Animals. Animals. 13 (4). https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13040732
Miscellaneous Factors. In Health and welfare of captive reptiles
Arena, P.C., Bashaw, M.J., Grant, R., Howell, T., Martinez-Silvestre, A. and Warwick, C. (2023). Miscellaneous Factors. In Health and welfare of captive reptiles . in: Warwick, C. (ed.) Health and Welfare of Captive Reptiles Springer. pp. 583-617
Mobile Zoos and Other Itinerant Animal Handling Events: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Policies
Warwick, C., Pilny, A., Steedman, C., Howell, T., Martínez-Silvestre, A., Cadenas, V. and Grant, R. (2023). Mobile Zoos and Other Itinerant Animal Handling Events: Current Status and Recommendations for Future Policies. Animals. 13 (2), p. 214. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13020214
Lunar phase as a cue for migrations to two species of explosive breeding amphibians—implications for conservation
Grant, R., Jarvis, L and Sengupta, A (2021). Lunar phase as a cue for migrations to two species of explosive breeding amphibians—implications for conservation. European Journal of Wildlife Research. 67 (11). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10344-020-01453-3
Getting It Straight: Accommodating Rectilinear Behavior in Captive Snakes-A Review of Recommendations and Their Evidence Base.
Warwick, C., Grant, R., Steedman, C., Howell, T., Arena, P.C., Lambiris, A.J.L., Nash, A-E., Jessop, M., Pilny, A., Amarello, M., Gorzula, S., Spain, M., Walton, A., Nicholas, E., Mancera, K., Whitehead, M., Martínez-Silvestre, A., Cadenas, V., Whittaker, A. and Wilson, A. (2021). Getting It Straight: Accommodating Rectilinear Behavior in Captive Snakes-A Review of Recommendations and Their Evidence Base. Animals. 11 (5). https://doi.org/ani11051459