Venturi nozzles for desalination brine discharges

Journal article

Soleimani Amiri, N., Abessi. O. and Roberts. P.J.W (2024). Venturi nozzles for desalination brine discharges. Desalination. 573, p. 117193.
AuthorsSoleimani Amiri, N., Abessi. O. and Roberts. P.J.W

Seawater desalination is a reliable way to confront the growing challenges of freshwater demands in the world.
Brine is the primary by-product of this process and needs to be carefully managed and discharged back into the
sea. In coastal desalination plants, the use of submerged outfall as a pipeline laying on the ocean floor is a
popular strategy to minimize the environmental impacts of brine discharge. The Venturi nozzle has been proposed
as a more efficient method for dispersing brine into the ocean. However, it requires a high exit velocity,
which poses limitations for steep nozzle angles in shallow waters. This study aims to investigate the benefits of a
lower range of exit velocities in the Venturi nozzles. The 60◦ inclined dense jet from a Venturi nozzle was
explored, numerically and experimentally, and the results were compared to those of a simple dense jet. Comparisons
showed that the Venturi nozzle decreases the flow path and diminishes flow dilution at the critical
points. However, this reduction can be compensated by increasing the discharge Froude number to reach the
same trajectory as a simple jet. It is important to note that this compensation is intricately linked to the discharge
velocity, and it makes the use of Venturi nozzles for brine discharge a challenging proposition in both deep and
shallow waters.

KeywordsDesalination, Brine disposal, Venturi nozzle, Inclined dense discharge, Mixing zone
Journal citation573, p. 117193
ISSN 0011-9164
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Publication dates
Print15 Jan 2024
Publication process dates
Accepted26 Nov 2023
Deposited08 Mar 2024
Accepted author manuscript
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