Can pea and white hemp proteins be used as a more sustainable protein source to improve nutritional and sensory results in gluten-free baked products?

PhD Thesis


Niccum, C. (2022). Can pea and white hemp proteins be used as a more sustainable protein source to improve nutritional and sensory results in gluten-free baked products? PhD Thesis London South Bank University National Bakery School https://doi.org/10.18744/lsbu.91w90
AuthorsNiccum, C.
TypePhD Thesis
Abstract

This study hypothesized that combining HPI and PPI could provide added nutrition while achieving positive sensory results. The ‘backcasting’ method incorporated sustainability for the product development process, outlining objectives, priorities and critical factors, including practical application and testing. Investigation included nutritional analysis of protein, fat and fiber, glycemic testing, hunger satiety and sensory analysis. Therefore, three GF products were developed using a unique HPI/PPI protein blend up to 30% in formulations. Rheological parameters (protein, starch and hydrocolloid behavior) were investigated using Mixolab®. Blend ratios showed an 80:20 (HPI/PPI) blend exhibited approximately similar protein behavior and stability to wheat flour during mixing/heating and gelatinization stages. Torque differences were significant between starch (1.19 Nm) and no-starch (0.88 Nm) samples, with higher gelatinization intensity for the starch blend. Dough showed significantly higher gelatinization intensity with XG than without (2.21 Nm and 1.75 Nm, respectively) and starch retrogradation during cooling (1.39 Nm and 1.21 Nm, respectively), indicating prolonged shelf life. Nutritional results showed a significant increase in protein for developed products (bread/cookie, p = 0.013; muffin, p = 0.022), no significant increase in fat or fiber using the protein blend, however fiber increased by 42.9% incorporating a MG mix. Glycemic testing showed no significant spike in blood glucose after ingestion.
P-value of all participants pre- and post- was 0.27 (men, p = 0.47; women, p = 0.31) while satiety results showed hunger levels of 0.73 (0-1 Not Hungry At All) after 30 minutes, increasing only slightly after 2 hours (1.63), indicating glycemic response and hunger levels can be controlled by incorporating certain ingredients. Sensory results showed no significant difference between products for appearance, taste and texture. 97.5% of participants rated 4 or above for taste and 95% above 4 for texture on a 5-point scale. Only 12.5% of participants believed the products were healthier options and 45% believed them to be GF. Therefore, this study confirms that nutritional improvement of GF bakery products using more sustainable plant-based proteins is possible while achieving positive sensory acceptance.

Year2022
PublisherLondon South Bank University
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.18744/lsbu.91w90
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Publication dates
Print12 Aug 2022
Publication process dates
Deposited31 Aug 2022
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