Alternative Proteins Feeding The World: Inclusion Of Cricket Powder In Cereal- Based Products

PhD Thesis

Petrie, D. (2022). Alternative Proteins Feeding The World: Inclusion Of Cricket Powder In Cereal- Based Products. PhD Thesis London South Bank University National Bakery School
AuthorsPetrie, D.
TypePhD Thesis

With the growing population worldwide and subsequently, the increasing demand for protein from livestock (poultry, fish, pigs and cattle) causes concern and future challenges. Entomophagy (the practice of consuming insects) can be promoted as an alternative and sustainable food source. Although there are around 1900 edible insect species globally, these are mainly consumed in developing countries due to their nutritional composition and ease of access. For instance, crickets are high in protein, fibre and low in carbohydrate, making them suitable to feed the world as an alternative food. The objective of this research was to understand the implications when using cricket powder fortificants within baked products. Three different sample replacement levels, wheat flour and cricket powder – 30% (WW+CP), wheat flour, cricket powder, quinoa- and Khorasan flour – 30:20:20% (WW+CP+Q+KH) and wheat flour, cricket powder, quinoa- Khorasan flour and mixed seeds – 30:20:20:25% (WW+CP+Q+KH+MS), were tested against a control sample (wheat flour – WW). Dough and bread samples were subjected to rheological, technological, chemical and sensory analysis to determine the individual analysis parameters. A negative linear correlation was observed between the number of inclusions within samples. Thus, impacting the rheological dough parameters,
particularly a statistical significance (p < .05) for secondary parameters (protein weakening, starch gelatinisation and enzyme degradation). Crumb brightness and slice volume parameters decreased through the C-Cell illumination system as the
replacement levels increased for all treatments. WW+CP+Q+KH+MS samples showed a decrease in the area occupied by air cells, the average air cell diameter, and cell wall thickness. However, the number of gas air cells increased for WW+CP+Q+KH and WW+CP+Q+KH+MS, indicating a good fermentation process
within the bread samples. Texture profile analysis (TPA) was monitored at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, showing a positive correlation between the higher number of flour inclusions and a reduced hardness within samples. Likewise, resilience decreased
as the replacement levels increased for all treatments. Bread samples were analysed for nutritional composition and revealed an increase in crude- protein, fat and fibre as the replacement levels increased. This correlated with a positive linear
increase between the increase in replacement levels and the macronutrients.
Furthermore, this directly impacted the texture for sample WW+CP+Q+KH+MS, as it maintained the softest crumb reducing the staling rate. Finally, bread samples made with the combination of WW+CP+Q+KH+MS, showed a liking by 145 untrained panellists (appearance – 57%, taste – 74%, texture – 64%). Data collected
highlighted a practical use of cricket powder, ancient grains and mixed seeds to produce enriched bread products. Meanwhile, a JISC survey found that consumers worldwide prefer insects as agricultural feed rather than a direct food source (r = .6).
However, this changed when participants heard about crickets’ potential health benefits, and a shift to accepting crickets as a direct food source was noticed (r = .89). Furthermore, the food neophobia levels showed a decrease compared to previous studies, suggesting more acceptance of this alternative protein.

PublisherLondon South Bank University
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Print15 Aug 2022
Publication process dates
Deposited31 Aug 2022
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